Simulation tools related to Energy Conversion and Storage
The following tools are on this page:
- LCOE Calculator
- OPV Lab
- PV Analyzer
- PV Panel Sim
- Radiative Cooling Experiment
- Thermophotonic Selective Emitter Simulation
ADEPT/F solves Poisson's equation coupled with the hole and electron continuity equations in one spatial dimension in compositionally nonuniform semiconductors. It was originally written to model solar cells fabricated from a wide variety of materials, including amorphous silicon, copper indium diselenide, and cadmium telluride. However, since material parameters (band gap, mobility, etc.) can be input by the user, devices fabricated from any material for which these parameters are known can be modeled. Dark I-V, light I-V, and spectral response of solar cells (or any two terminal device) can be computed. Plots of many internal parameters, such as carrier density, recombination, electric field, etc., can be plotted at any operating point.
Homostructures and heterostructures, both abrupt and graded, can be modeled. Solar cell material systems modeled include ZnO/CdS/CIS, ZnO/CdS/CIGS, CdS/CdTe, a-Si, Si, AlGaAs/GaAs, GaSb, InP, and several others.
This Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) calculator calculates the minimum base cost of energy supplied by a facility or system which must be charged to its customers (i.e. break even before profit).
The program takes the user input specifications and returns a number plot for the Levelized Cost of Energy, and Capital Recovery Factor (CRF). Then, a single parameter can be changed incrementally (i.e. parameter sweep) and the number plot will graph all simulation results and display them together for LCOE or CRF as a function of that particular variable. This will graphically represent to what extent that swept variable dictates the price of energy. Such sweeping of variables not only show what areas can be used to make energy cheaper, but also to show where R&D can be used to optimize cost in the most effective way.
MEEPPV is a graphical user interface (GUI) based MEEP simulation tool, particularly for photovoltaic (PV) cells. It was developed for new and less users who are starting to use MEEP, as this tool requires a background understanding of Scheme language. MEEPPV now collects input from the Rappture interface, and uses it to create a Scheme control file to run MEEP on the back end as before. It outputs images of the PV cell structure being simulated; graphs of the transmission, reflection, and absorption; as well as an animation of the fields propagating through the PV cell.
The “OPV Lab” simulation tool is an educational resource to analyze the operation and performance of organic solar cells. The tool simulates the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of organic solar cells with bilayer or planar heterojunction configuration. The following procedure is followed to get the I-V characteristics
PC1D solves the fully coupled nonlinear equations for one-dimensional transport of electrons and holes in crystalline semiconductor devices, with emphasis on photovoltaic devices.
PV Analyzer is a tool for rapid data analysis and parameter extraction from solar cell measurements. Current version analyzes the dark current-voltage (IV) characteristics of solar cells to extract the diode and shunt current parameters. Large area solar cells have a significant parasitic conduction due to parallel shunt paths. In thin film cells in particular these shunt currents are non-ohmic and symmetric with voltage. This tool utilizes the symmetry of shunt current to separate the shunt and diode current components and then uses separate equations to fit the two current components. This separation and fitting method yields parameter values which are free from fluctuations due to parasitic and can be related to physical processes in the device. The tool can also analyze multiple IV data at once, and all the data as well as fit parameters can be downloaded as text files for further analysis.
Simulate a passive radiative cooling solution implementation in an experimental setup.
Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems can generate electricity from high-temperature heat sources via thermal radiation. However, the intense heating of a photovoltaic (PV) cell can greatly reduce the overall efficiency of the system. Therefore, it is critical to develop techniques to keep the PV cells close to ambient temperature without consuming energy. Radiative cooling is a passive technique that dissipates heat into remote space via thermal radiation.
Radcool complements TPVexpt and predicts the performance of a radiative cooling system in general. The main design considerations of Radcool include: (1) the area ratio between the PV cell and the cooling emitter, and (2) the cooling emitter materials. The cooling performance is evaluated by equilibrium heat transfer analysis.
The radiative cooling technique is not limited to TPV systems; other potential applications include solar cell cooling, infrared detectors, and sensitive electronic devices that are used outdoors.
Simulate Thermophotovoltaics with rare earth-based selective emitters.
Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices convert heat to electricity using thermal radiation to illuminate a photovoltaic (PV) diode. Typically, this radiation is generated by a blackbody-like emitter. Such an emission spectrum includes a broad range of wavelengths, but only higher energy photons can be converted by the PV diode, which severely limits efficiencies. Thus, introducing a selective emitter and filter to recycle unwanted photons could potentially greatly enhance performance.
This model utilizes a rare earth-doped selective emitter structure to increase the number of photons emitted above the bandgap of the photovoltaic (PV) cell, while minimizing the total power emitted below the bandgap. A chirped dielectric stack is introduced on top to limit emitted wavelengths, while a broadband dielectric mirror on the bottom ensures unidirectional emission.
This tool simulates the emittance spectrum and efficiency for this design for various parameters, such as the number of dielectric bilayers and PV cell bandgap.