## Semiconductor Device Physics

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### Overview

### Go to the Education Page

### Overview

Welcome to the Semiconductor device physics group! If you are a student or practicing engineer or scientist who wants to learn more about semiconductors or an instructor looking for materials to use in a course, you can find material here that includes complete courses and seminars on specialized topics.

Much of the material is freely accessible by any visitor, but by joining this group, you can participate in discussions on topics of interest to you, post items to the group wiki or even work on a project with other group members. Additionally, as a group member you may receive notifications about new materials and events of interest to the semiconductors group members. Adding events to the group calendar is as easy as clicking on “add event”.

You can also contribute substantial resources to nanoHUB through the resource contribution process, and then send a message to the group manager so that links to those resources can be added to this group.

This group contains the following:

### Undergraduate Material

### The Transistor

By Victor Hugo Estrada Rivera, Elizabeth Gardner

This PowerPoint presentation describes a brief history of how the transistor was developed, how a transistor works and its possible applications. Designed for the high school level.

### Electronic Devices Syllabus

By Greg Lush

This syllabus includes a list of possible topics for an Electronic Devices (EE 3329) course that is taught at the University of Texas at El Paso. Instructors may select which topics they wish to cover during a semester.

Topics include: quantum mechanics, quantum theory, semiconductors, carrier models, carrier action, pn junctions, BJT, MOS, MOSFETs

### Solid State Electronic Devices

By Nahil Sobh and Mohamed Mohamed

This tool complements the Solid State Electronic Devices Class at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. It includes 7 simulations: Effect of doping on semiconductors, Fermi Dirac and Maxwell-Boltzmann Distributions, PN Junction Long-base depletion approximation, NP Junction Long-base depletion approximation, PN Junction short-base depletion approximation, NP Junction short-base depletion approximation, PN Junction Exact Solution.

### Drift-Diffusion Lab Learning Materials

By Saumitra Raj Mehrotra, Dragica Vasileska, Gerhard Klimeck, Alejandra J. Magana

These simulations will help users to better understand carrier drift and diffusion in semiconductors.

Resources include: nanoHUB ABACUS tool, recommended reading, demos, examples, exercises, homework and their solutions.

### MOSFET Design Calculations Step 1 Step 2 Step 3

By Stella Quinones and Jose Valdez

These three downloadable homework assignments are created to introduce senior level undergraduate Electrical and Computer Engineering student to the design of MOSFETs.

Topics include: MOSFET design, calculations, doping, simulations using nanoHUB MOSFET tool.

### MOSFET Design Simulation I

By Stella Quinones, Jose Valdez

Additional homework assignments based on MOSFET design simulations using nanoHUB’s MOSFET tool.

### PN Junctions: Simulation and Calculation of Electrostatic Variables

By Stella Quinones

Homework assignment that combines basic PN junction electrostatic variable calculations (Vbi, Xn, Xp and Emax) with the simulation of PN junctions for 2 sets of doping conditions. Both forward and reverse bias conditions are simulated. This homework assignment is designed for junior level undergraduate Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) students enrolled in the first Electronic Devices course in the ECE curriculum.

### MOS-C VFB Calculation: Comparison of Theoretical and Simulation Values

By Stella Quinones

The flatband voltage is calculated based on device physics theory and is compared to the value determined from the simulation of a MOS-Capacitor using the MOSCap simulation tool on the nanoHUB.org website. By completing this exercise, the student is able to compare the mathematical model of the gate voltage of a MOS-Capacitor to the interpretation of the energy band diagram of a MOS-Capacitor. The example includes the simulation of a MOS-Capacitor with a p-type substrate and an n+poly silicon gate.

### Introduction to Semiconductor Simulation

### **A Primer on Semiconductor Device Simulation**

** Purdue University (2006) **

Taught by Mark Lundstrom

Computer simulation is now an essential tool for the research and development of semiconductor processes and devices, but to use a simulation tool intelligently, one must know what’s “under the hood.” This talk is a tutorial introduction designed for someone using semiconductor device simulation for the first time.

### Graduate Courses

### **Solid State Devices**

** ECE 606 at Purdue University (2012) ** 26 Lectures.

Taught by Gerhard Klimeck

Selected Topics: crystal classification, quantum mechanics, bandstructures, density of states, Schrodinger’s Equation, intrinsic semiconductors, p-n junctions, bipolar transistors, p-n diode characteristics/ AC response, MOS electrostatics, MOScap, MOSFET

### **Principles of Semiconductor Devices**

** ECE 606 at Purdue University (2008) ** 42 Lectures.

Taught by Muhammad A. Alam

Selected Topics: device physics, devices, transistors, periodic crystals, quantum mechanics, energy bands, density of states, equilibrium statistics/concentrations, bulk recombination, carrier transport, hall effect, diffusion, continuity equations, Schottky Diode, BJT, heterojunction, MOS, MOSFET characteristics

### **Solid State Electronic Devices**

** ECE 440 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (2008) ** 38 Lectures.

Taught by Eric Pop

Selected Topics: p-n junctions, bipolar transistors, field effect transistors, crystal lattices, energy bands, carrier statistics, drift, doping semiconductors, carrier concentrations, optical absorption, photoconductivity, diffusion, P-N Diode, BJT, MOS, MOSFET

### **Solid State Electronic Devices Homework Assignments**

** ECE 440 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (2009) **

Taught by Mohamed Mohamed

Selected Topics: crystal lattices, energy bands, carrier statistics, drift, doping semiconductors, optical absorption, diffusion, P-N Diode, BJT, MOS, MOSFET

### **Electronic Transport in Semiconductors**

** ECE 656 at Purdue University (2009) ** 36 Lectures.

Taught by Mark Lundstrom

Selected Topics: near-equilibrium transport, Landauer approach, Boltzman equation, percolative transport, carrier scattering, relaxation times, Monte Carlo simulation, off-equilibrium transport, quantum transport

### **Electronic Transport in Semiconductors**

** ECE 656 at Purdue University (2011) ** 41 Lectures.

Taught by Mark Lundstrom

Selected Topics: carrier transport, k-space, resistance, thermoelectric effects, drift-diffusion, Boltzmann transport (BTE), magnetic fields, transmission and back scattering, photon scattering, Monte Carlo Simulation, High-field transport, non-local transport, Ensemble Effects, Ballistic Transport

### Semiconductor Simulation Tools

### Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) Lab

By Gerhard Klimeck, Dragica Vasileska

Introduction to TCAD simulation. This is a suite of simulation tools that includes semiconductor process modeling, device simulation, and circuit simulation.

### TSUPREM4

By Steven Clark and licensed by Synopsys, Inc.

TSUPREM-4 is a computer program for simulating the processing steps used in the manufacture of silicon integrated circuits and discrete devices. The types of processing steps modeled by the current version of the program include ion implantation, inert ambient drive-in, silicon and polysilicon oxidation and silicidation, epitaxial growth, and low temperature deposition and etching of various materials.
**Note:** Because of the way this software is licensed, it is available only to users on the West Lafayette campus of Purdue University. You must use a network connection on campus, or else you will get an “access denied” message.

### Mobility and Resistivity Tool

By Ivan Santos, Stephanie Michelle Sanchez, Stella Quinones

This tool calculates the electron and hole mobility in a semiconductor as well as its resistivity as a function of doping at room temperature (300K) using an empirical curve fit model for the electron and hole mobility.

### Intro to MOS-Capacitor Tool

By Emmanuel Jose Ochoa

Use the Intro to MOS-C tool to model the device physics and electrostatic variables as a function of silicon doping, oxide (SiO2) thickness, gate type (n+poly/p+poly), and semiconductor type (n-type/p- type). The relationship between flatband voltage, threshold voltage, maximum depletion width and maximum surface potential can be emphasized by instructor assignment design.

### Semiconductor Doping

By Ivan Santos, Stella Quinones

The objective of the Semiconductor Doping tool is to understand N-Type and P-Type Semiconductor Doping.

### Minority Carrier Diffusion Equation Tool

By Ivan Santos, Stella Quinones

This tool allows the user to apply the Minority Carrier Diffusion Equation (MCDE) to model excess carrier concentration as a function of time or distance.

### Carrier Concentration

By Stephanie Michelle Sanchez, Ivan Santos, Stella Quinones

The tool calculates the electron and hole concentration for a semiconductor material for five special cases: intrinsic, N-Type, P-Type, high temperature, and compensated.

### Semiconductor Processing

### Process Lab— Oxidation

By Shuqing Cao, Yang Liu, Peter Griffin

The oxidation process is one of the most important processes in VLSI fabrication. It is implemented in processes such as the gate dielectric growth, the quality of which is extremely important for the scaling and performance of today’s integrated circuit technology. This simulation tool integrates both the classic Deal-Grove’s model and Massoud’s model, which both describe the oxidation growth process. The tool gives users the freedom to adjust critical parameters and conditions in the process, such as oxidant condition, time, initial oxide thickness, temperature, pressure, crystal orientation, as well as an opportunity to choose between the Deal-Grove’s or Massoud’s model, or a combination of both.

### Process Lab— Oxidation Flux

By Shuqing Cao, Yang Liu, Peter Griffin

This simulation tool integrates both the classic Deal-Grove’s model and Massoud’s model, which both describe the oxidation growth process. Specifically, this tool investigates the effect of different parameters and conditions on oxidation process by looking into the oxidation flux. It gives users the freedom to adjust critical parameters and conditions in the process, such as oxidant condition, time, initial oxide thickness, temperature, pressure, crystal orientation, as well as an opportunity to choose between the Deal-Grove’s or Massoud’s model, or a combination of both.

### Process Lab— Concentration-Dependent Diffusion

By Shuqing Cao, Yang Liu, Peter Griffin

The diffusion process is one of the most important processes in VLSI fabrication. It is implemented in processes such as the drain and source doping, the quality of which is extremely important for the electrical properties and performance of today’s integrated circuit technology. This simulation tool simulates the dopant diffusion process by solving the partial differential equations. The tool gives users the freedom to adjust critical parameters and conditions in the process, such as the initial doping profile, time, temperature, length, and so on. It also gives users opportunities to choose between the delta or box-shaped dopant source, concentration dependency, as well as the type of dopants among 6 commonly used dopant species.

### Process Lab— Defect-coupled Diffusion

By Shuqing Cao, Yang Liu, Peter Griffin

Integrated Circuit Fabrication Process Simulation— Simulates dopant diffusion coupled with point defects.