The bias command carries out steady state device analysis.

- SYSTEM = (s)
- INITIAL = (l)
- ELECTRODE = (s)
- NSTEPS=(i)
- VOLTAGE=(r)
- VSTEP=(r)
- TIME=(r)
- TEMPERATURE=(r)

SYSTEM: [string]

- system of equations to use. One set must be chosen.
Currently supported: newton0, newton1e, newton1h, newton2, and any
user-defined system of equations

- the INITIAL solution is chosen, all biases are reset to zero, the
potential is set to the charge neutral solution and the carriers
adjusted accordingly. Then the system of equations is solved. Other
bias parameters are ignored.

- BIAS command allows one applied bias at a time to be modified. The
ELECTRODE parameter defines which electrode is being modified. The
string refers to a name defined either on a boundary command or read
from a previous grid. More than one electrode can be specified
using a string array, e.g.,

electrode=gate,drain

NSTEPS: [integer]

- number of bias increments to be taken. May be omitted if there is
just one.

- voltage step to be taken for each bias step.
If the bias values of multiple electrodes are being changed, use a
real array, e.g.,

vstep=0.5,1.0where there is one value for each electrode value being changed. TIME: [real (seconds)]

- time interval for a transient solution.

- a single step is desired, specify VOLTAGE instead of
VSTEP. If the bias values of multiple electrodes are being
changed, use a real array, e.g.,

voltage=0.5,1.0where there is one value for each electrode being changed. TCELSIUS: [real (degrees Celsius)]

- temperature at which the simulation is performed. Default
is 26.85C (300K).

- temperature at which the simulation is performed. Default is 300K.

- voltage of a voltage ramp. Used in one of these
combinations: vinit, vfinal, nstep; or vinit, vstep, nstep.
If the bias values of multiple electrodes are being changed, use a
real array, e.g.,

vinit=0.5,1.0where there is one value for each electrode being changed. VFINAL: [real or real array (volts)]

- voltage of a voltage ramp. Used in one of these combinations:
vinit, vfinal, nstep; or vinit, vstep, nstep.

If the bias values of multiple electrodes are being changed, use a real array, e.g.,

vinit=0.5,1.0where there is one value for each electrode being changed.

**Examples:**

First bias statement needs the ``initial'' keyword:

`bias system=silicon_poisson initial`

To solve for a particular bias value:

`bias system=silicon_dd voltage=0.5 elec=anode`

To solve for a series of bias values:

`bias system=silicon_dd vstep=0.1 nstep=20 elec=gate`

To step biases on two electrodes at once:

`bias system=silicon_dd vinit=0.1,0.1 vfinal=0.5,0.5 nstep=4 elec=gate,drain`

MIN.BACKSTEP

- a given bias step does not converge, the size of the voltage
step will be reduced until it does. However,
``MIN.BACKSTEP'' is the minimum fraction of the original
voltage step that is allowed before the BIAS command terminates.

- temperature at which the simulation is performed. Default
is 26.85C (300K).

- expression.

- balance analysis parameter.

- balance analysis parameter.

- balance analysis parameter.

- balance analysis parameter.

- balance analysis parameter.

- balance analysis parameter.

Mon Jul 1 14:45:00 PDT 2002