BME 695L Lecture 2: Designing Nanomedical Systems

By James Leary

Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN

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Abstract

See references below for related reading.

2.1       Elements of good engineering design
2.1.1    Whenever possible, use a general design that has already been tested
2.1.2    Whenever possible, take advantage of “biomimicry” – Nature has tried many designs!
2.1.3    Avoid “general purpose” design. Use multiple specific molecules to do specific tasks.
2.1.4    Control the order of molecular assembly to control the order of events
2.1.5    Therefore, perform the nano assembly in reverse order to the desired order of events

2.2      Building a nanodevice
2.2.1    Choice of core materials
2.2.2    Add drug or therapeutic gene
2.2.3    Add molecular biosensors to control drug/gene delivery
2.2.4    Add intracellular targeting molecules
2.2.5    Result is multi-component, multi-functional nanomedical device
2.2.6    For use, design to de-layer, one layer at a time
2.2.7    The multi-step drug/gene delivery process in nanomedical systems

2.3      The challenge of drug/gene dosing to single cells
2.3.1    Precise targeting of drug delivery system while protecting non-targeted cells from exposure to the drug
2.3.2    How to minimize mis-targeting
2.3.3    How to deliver the right dose per cell
2.3.4    One possible solution – in situ manufacture of therapeutic genes

2.4      Bridging the gap between diagnostics and therapeutics
2.4.1    how conventional medicine is practiced in terms of diagnostics and therapeutics
2.4.2    the consequences of separating diagnostics and therapeutics
2.4.3    a new approach – "theragnostics" (or "theranostics")

2.5      Examples of current theragnostic systems
2.5.1    example 1: Rituxan ("Rituximab)(an example of not using diagnostics to guide the therapy)
2.5.2    example 2: Herceptin ("terastuzumab")
2.5.3    example 3: Iressa ("Gefitinib)
2.5.4    other examples

2.6      How theragnostics relates to Molecular Imaging
2.6.1    conventional imaging is not very specific
2.6.2    types of In-vivo Imaging
         2.6.2.1 X-rays, CAT (Computed Axial Tomography) scans
         2.6.2.2 MRI (magnetic Resonance Imaging)
         2.6.2.3 PET (Positron Emission Tomography) scans
2.6.3    "molecular imaging" of nanoparticles in-vivo for diagnostics/monitoring of therapeutics

2.8      Engineering nanomedical systems for simultaneous molecular imaging
2.8.1    using nanomedical cores for MRI contrast agents
2.8.2    difficulties in using PET probes for nanomedical devices
2.8.3    using cell-specific probes for molecular imaging of nanomedical devices
2.8.4    breaking the "diffraction limit" – new nano-level imaging modalities

2.9      Theragnostic nanomedical devices
2.9.1    using nanomedical devices to guide separate therapeutic device
2.9.2    when might we want to combine diagnostics and therapeutics?

Credits

Copyright © 2011, James F. Leary, All rights reserved.

References

Ahn, C. “Pharmacogenomics in Drug Discovery and Development”. Genomics & Informatics Vol. 5(2) 41-45, (2007). (Full text found at genominfo.org)
McCarthy, J.R., Jaffer,F.A., Weissleder, R. “A Macrophage-Targeted Theranostic Nanoparticle for Biomedical Applications”. Small 2(8-9): 983 – 987 (2006).
Pan, D., Caruthers, S.D., Hu, G., Senpan, A., Scott, M.J., Gaffney, P.J., Wickline, S.A., Lanza, G.M. “Ligand-Directed Nanobialys as Theranostic Agent for Drug Delivery and Manganese-Based Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Vascular Targets”. J. AM. CHEM. SOC., 130, 9186–9187 (2008) (Full text found at nih.gov)
Prow, T.W., Rose, W.A., Wang, N., Reece, L.M., Lvov, Y., Leary, J.F. "Biosensor-Controlled Gene Therapy/Drug Delivery with Nanoparticles for Nanomedicine" Proc. of SPIE 5692: 199 – 208, 2005.

Cite this work

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

  • James Leary (2011), "BME 695L Lecture 2: Designing Nanomedical Systems," http://nanohub.org/resources/11968.

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Location

1083 BME, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN

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BME 695L Lecture 2: Designing Nanomedical Systems
  • Lecture 2: Designing Nanomedical Systems 1. Lecture 2: Designing Nanomedic… 0
    00:00/00:00
  • Some Elements of Good Engineering Design Applicable to the Design of Nanomedical Systems 2. Some Elements of Good Engineer… 458.303321623414
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  • Biomimicry – Nature has already developed some successful designs! 3. Biomimicry – Nature has alre… 508.06783989065826
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  • A design tested by Mother nature…* 4. A design tested by Mother natu… 793.14953450714438
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  • Some Elements of Good Engineering Design Applicable to the Design of Nanomedical Systems 5. Some Elements of Good Engineer… 889.00862131691031
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  • A nanomedical device must do several functions well, so it must contain specific molecules that do these functions well: 6. A nanomedical device must do s… 991.71895024855337
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  • Some Elements of Good Engineering Design Applicable to the Design of Nanomedical Systems 7. Some Elements of Good Engineer… 1278.4269571392324
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  • By controlling the order of molecular assembly one can control the order of those specific molecular functions, leading to a 8. By controlling the order of mo… 1341.8883975769531
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  • Order of nanoassembly 9. Order of nanoassembly 1405.884340546904
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  • Step 1: Choice of Core Materials 10. Step 1: Choice of Core Materia… 1498.6606695879025
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  • Step 2: Add drug or therapeutic gene 11. Step 2: Add drug or therapeuti… 1702.2694803155368
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  • Step 3: Add Molecular Biosensors 12. Step 3: Add Molecular Biosenso… 1762.8970497679618
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  • Step 4: Add Intracellular targeting molecules 13. Step 4: Add Intracellular targ… 1861.3985003795281
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  • Result: A Multi-component, Multi-functional 14. Result: A Multi-component, Mul… 1916.00735228341
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  • To use, de-layer nanoparticle one layer at a time 15. To use, de-layer nanoparticle … 2083.6506557087559
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  • The Multi-Step Drug/Gene Delivery Process in Nanomedical Systems 16. The Multi-Step Drug/Gene Deliv… 2351.1165916465711
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  • The Challenge - Optimal Drug Delivery to the Right Cells without the 17. The Challenge - Optimal Drug D… 2496.4466007456
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  • One Solution to the Problem of Targeted Drug Delivery 18. One Solution to the Problem of… 2558.8357460658954
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  • Concept of nanoparticle-based 19. Concept of nanoparticle-based … 2671.4122233948965
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  • Concept of nanoparticle-based 20. Concept of nanoparticle-based … 2689.9263502330027
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  • Example of in-situ manufacture of fluorescent reporter genes 21. Example of in-situ manufacture… 2755.5450513110509
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  • Bridging the gap between diagnostics and therapeutics 22. Bridging the gap between diagn… 2927.8858903840451
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  • Theragnostics 23. Theragnostics 3018.7538455681879
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  • Examples of current 24. Examples of current "directed … 3068.518363835432
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  • Drug-Test 25. Drug-Test "Theragnostics" Comb… 3648.5172183306618
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  • How theragnostics relates to Molecular Imaging 26. How theragnostics relates to M… 3665.5457850533767
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  • 1. X-rays 27. 1. X-rays 3899.1013855347519
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  • 2. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) 28. 2. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Ima… 3918.77231605927
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  • 3. PET (Positron Emission Tomography) scans 29. 3. PET (Positron Emission Tomo… 3946.6639339671619
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  • 4. In-vivo Optical Imaging 30. 4. In-vivo Optical Imaging 3982.189047302481
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  • Molecular Imaging on the Nanoscale 31. Molecular Imaging on the Nanos… 3997.7496341353071
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  • Engineering nanomedical systems for simultaneous molecular imaging 32. Engineering nanomedical system… 4035.1831213274822
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  • Theragnostic nanomedical devices 33. Theragnostic nanomedical devic… 4068.5062648279672
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  • References 34. References 4101.8294083284518
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