In this lecture, we looked at the three generations of the glucose sensor and the ways it has changed. The first generation was the one discussed in the previous lecture in which the glucose concentration was found based off of the O2 levels. However, the disadvantage was that we would rely on O2 concentration rather than glucose concentration. The second generation replaced O2 with other oxidizing agents that can react with GOD and produced Gluconolactone + GODr + 2H+. This involved the use of a mediator which made a reversible electron transfer agent. However, it required complex chemistry that limited time and the coupling of electrons from the gel to the electrode was insufficient to time with the mediators.. The third generation sensors had the GOD directly on the electrode. This increased the response time by putting the molecule directly on the electrode and the GOD is still reversible without the need of the use of a mediator.
My research group is focused on the application of sub-wavelength optical phenomena and fabrication methods to the development of novel devices and instrumentation for the life sciences. The group is highly interdisciplinary, with expertise in the areas of microfabrication, nanotechnology, computer simulation, instrumentation, molecular biology, and cell biology. In particular, we are working on biosensors based upon photonic crystal concepts that can either be built from low-cost flexible plastic materials, or integrated with semiconductor-based active devices, such as light sources and photodetectors, for high performance integrated detection systems.
Using a combination of micrometer-scale and nanometer-scale fabrication tools, we are devising novel methods and materials for producing electro-optic devices with nanometer-scale features that can be scaled for low-cost manufacturing. Many of our techniques are geared for compatibility with flexible plastic materials, leading to applications such as low cost disposable sensors, wearable sensors, flexible electronics, and flexible displays. Because our structures manipulate light at a scale that is smaller than an optical wavelength, we rely on computer simulation tools such as Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) and Finite Difference Time Doman (FDTD) to model, design, and understand optical phenomena within photonic crystals and related devices.
In addition to fabricating devices, our group is also focused on the design, prototyping, and testing of biosensor instrumentation for high sensitivity, portability, and resolution. Advanced instruments enable high resolution imaging of biochemical and cellular interactions with the ability to monitor images of biochemical interactions as a function of time. Using the sensors and instrumentation, we are exploring new applications for optical biosensor technology including protein microarrays, biosensor/mass spectrometry systems, and microfluidics-based assays using nanoliter quantities of reagents. The methods and systems developed in the laboratory are applied in the fields of life science research, drug discovery, diagnostic testing, and environmental monitoring. -From Professor Cunningham's Faculty Profile
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University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL