Counter Intuitive Physics of Ballistic Transport in the State-of-the-Art Electronic Devices

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Abstract

Philip F. Bagwell Honorary Lecture - A lecture Series held in fond memory of Philip F. Bagwell, former Professor in Electrical and Computer Engineering, to celebrate his spirit of deep thinking across disciplines.

In a small enough semiconductor devices, the electron mean free path for collisions with impurities or lattice vibrations greatly exceeds the device size. Hence, the electrons travelling with the thermal or Fermi velocity leave the active region of the device before they experience scattering. Such collisionless electron transport is called "ballistic". The electron mean free path in silicon at room temperature (on the order of 30 nm) is much greater than the 10 or 12 nm feature size of modern silicon CMOS used, for example, in the recent generations of iPhones or android phones. The current-voltage characteristics of such devices look similar to those of much longer transistors. However, the physics of the ballistic transport hiding behind this misleading similarity is very different and counter intuitive. It has important qualitative consequences for the design of the advanced transistors and integrated circuits. One new ballistic concept the concept of a "ballistic mobility". A mobility is the coefficient of proportionality between the effective drift velocity in the device channel and applied electric field. Since electrons hit contacts more often in short channel devices, the ballistic mobility is proportional to the device length, as was confirmed by numerous experimental data. At high frequencies, the electron inertia starts playing an important or even dominant role. The high frequency impedance is strongly affected by the electron inertia and by the phase delays of the opposing electron fluxes in the device channel. The waves of the electron density (plasma waves) enable the device response well into the terahertz (THz) range of frequencies. At high excitation levels, these waves are transformed into the shock waves. The rectification and instabilities of the plasma waves enable a new generation of THz and sub-THz plasmonic devices. Ultra-wide band WIFI, advanced homeland security, VLSI testing, and cancer detection are but examples of applications of this plasmonic technology.

Bio

Michael S. Shur Professor Michael S. Shur obtained an MS degree in Electrical Engineering from the St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University in 1965, and a Ph.D. in Physics from the Ioffe Institute of Physics and Technology in 1967. He worked as a Junior Scientist at the Ioffe Institute and subsequently held research or faculty positions at Wayne State University (MI), Cornell University (NY), Oakland University (MI), the University of Minnesota, and the University of Virginia. In 1996 he joined the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (Troy, NY) as the Patricia W. and C. Shelden Roberts Professor of Solid State Electronics in the Departments of Electrical, Computer and Systems Engineering and Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy. He additionally serves as the Director of the Broadband Center since 2006, and previously presided over the Center for Integrated Electronics and the RPI site of ‘Connection One’. Shur has founded and co-founded four companies and worked as Jefferson Science Fellow in the US Department of State. He provides consulting and technical expertise to a wide array of multinational corporations and patent law firms, and is an Editorial Board member for several scientific journals. His research has been recognized by a series of awards and prizes, garnered over 50,000 publication citations with h-index of 103, and featured in numerous keynote presentations and invited lectures. Shur is a Fellow of the National Academy of Inventors, the Optical Society of America, MRS, IET, the Electrochemical Society, the World Innovation Foundation, AAAS, and the Electromagnetic Academy; a Life Fellow of IEEE and the American Physical Society; and a Fellow and Life Member of SPIE. He received Honorary Doctorates from the St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University and the University of Vilnius, in 1994 and 2016 respectively.

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Researchers should cite this work as follows:

  • Michael Shur (2017), "Counter Intuitive Physics of Ballistic Transport in the State-of-the-Art Electronic Devices," http://nanohub.org/resources/27579.

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121 Burton Morgan, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN

Counter Intuitive Physics of Ballistic Transport in the State-of-the-Art Electronic Devices
  • Counter Intuitive Physics of Ballistic Transport in State-of-the-Art Electronic Devices 1. Counter Intuitive Physics of B… 0
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  • Talk Outline 2. Talk Outline 275.07507507507506
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  • Electron flow in a conductor: zero electric field 3. Electron flow in a conductor: … 310.37704371037705
    00:00/00:00
  • Electron drift velocity 4. Electron drift velocity 343.04304304304304
    00:00/00:00
  • Electrons experiencing collisions 5. Electrons experiencing collisi… 360.46046046046047
    00:00/00:00
  • Sample shorter than the mean free path 6. Sample shorter than the mean f… 414.61461461461465
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  • Mean Free Path 7. Mean Free Path 440.24024024024027
    00:00/00:00
  • Commercial Si transistors became ballistic in 2013 8. Commercial Si transistors beca… 461.12779446112779
    00:00/00:00
  • INTEL: 10 nm in iPhone X 9. INTEL: 10 nm in iPhone X 487.82115448782116
    00:00/00:00
  • Number of Transistors Per 1US$ 10. Number of Transistors Per 1US$ 529.2292292292293
    00:00/00:00
  • Cost of the entry ticket is rising 11. Cost of the entry ticket is ri… 546.68001334668008
    00:00/00:00
  • 0.1 billion transistors per mm2 12. 0.1 billion transistors per mm… 608.60860860860862
    00:00/00:00
  • Minimum Transistor size 13. Minimum Transistor size 632.13213213213214
    00:00/00:00
  • Sizes 14. Sizes 669.43610276943616
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  • Collision Dominated, Overshoot, and Ballistic Transport 15. Collision Dominated, Overshoot… 705.80580580580579
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  • Ballistic Diodes and Transistors 16. Ballistic Diodes and Transisto… 820.25358692025361
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  • Ballistic Experiment 17. Ballistic Experiment 883.75041708375045
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  • Ballistic transistors look 18. Ballistic transistors look "no… 918.15148481815152
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  • Ballistic transistors look 19. Ballistic transistors look "no… 957.72439105772446
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  • Nanoscale Transistors 20. Nanoscale Transistors 980.94761428094762
    00:00/00:00
  • Ballistic Mobility 21. Ballistic Mobility 1013.8471805138472
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  • DC Ballistic mobility 22. DC Ballistic mobility 1113.8805472138806
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  • Ballistic Mobility in GaAs 23. Ballistic Mobility in GaAs 1157.8578578578579
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  • Ballistic mobility in Si 24. Ballistic mobility in Si 1162.4624624624626
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  • Energy band, field, and concentration profiles of n+-n-n+ sample 25. Energy band, field, and concen… 1179.9466132799466
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  • Ballistic admittance versus frequency 26. Ballistic admittance versus fr… 1231.7984651317986
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  • Water – Air – Electron Fluid Comparison 27. Water – Air – Electron Flu… 1339.1391391391392
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  • Nonlinear transport in gated 2-D electron plasma 28. Nonlinear transport in gated 2… 1498.0313646980314
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  • Space charge injection into a ballistic sample 29. Space charge injection into a … 1505.2385719052386
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  • Plasma Waves 30. Plasma Waves 1509.9099099099099
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  • Conventional response at high frequencies 31. Conventional response at high … 1564.3977310643977
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  • THz SPICE Model 32. THz SPICE Model 1640.4070737404072
    00:00/00:00
  • Dispersion of Plasma Waves 33. Dispersion of Plasma Waves 1670.1034367701036
    00:00/00:00
  • THz radiation excites plasma waves in a FET 34. THz radiation excites plasma w… 1714.0807474140809
    00:00/00:00
  • Plasmonic detectors work up to 5 THz 35. Plasmonic detectors work up to… 1854.9215882549217
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  • HEMT for Resonant THz detection 36. HEMT for Resonant THz detectio… 1859.0256923590257
    00:00/00:00
  • DETECTION: THz response of CMOS (non-resonant) 37. DETECTION: THz response of CMO… 1968.5018351685019
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  • Subwavelength Imaging: coupling of THz radiation into transistor 38. Subwavelength Imaging: couplin… 1974.2742742742744
    00:00/00:00
  • Tranistor responsivity pattern 39. Tranistor responsivity pattern 2030.830830830831
    00:00/00:00
  • Dyakonov-Shur Instability for InGaAs 40. Dyakonov-Shur Instability for … 2046.47981314648
    00:00/00:00
  • Coherent monochromatic radiation 41. Coherent monochromatic radiati… 2142.2756089422755
    00:00/00:00
  • Grating gate THz detectors and sources 42. Grating gate THz detectors and… 2148.0146813480146
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  • Modulator 43. Modulator 2179.1791791791793
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  • Transmission spectra of grating-gate GaN structure 44. Transmission spectra of gratin… 2183.7170503837169
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  • Resonant 45. Resonant "ratchet detection" 2207.8745412078747
    00:00/00:00
  • Plasmonic Boom Similar to Sonic Boom 46. Plasmonic Boom Similar to Soni… 2298.0647313980649
    00:00/00:00
  • Plasmonic Boom similar to Sonic Boom 47. Plasmonic Boom similar to Soni… 2376.4431097764432
    00:00/00:00
  • Plasmonic Boom THz Source 48. Plasmonic Boom THz Source 2380.714047380714
    00:00/00:00
  • Plasma THz Electronics Advantages 49. Plasma THz Electronics Advanta… 2462.1621621621621
    00:00/00:00
  • How fast could a FET switch? 50. How fast could a FET switch? 2487.7544210877545
    00:00/00:00
  • Response Time 51. Response Time 2508.4084084084084
    00:00/00:00
  • Modulation frequency 52. Modulation frequency 2584.4511177844511
    00:00/00:00
  • Response to an input step-function 53. Response to an input step-func… 2615.3820487153821
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  • Time delay in transit time regime 54. Time delay in transit time reg… 2629.3293293293295
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  • Plasmonic delay 55. Plasmonic delay 2640.1735068401736
    00:00/00:00
  • Claude Monet Impressions of Sunset, Pourville (1882) 56. Claude Monet Impressions of Su… 2692.6259592926262
    00:00/00:00
  • Shock Plasma Waves (Hokusai 1760-1849 ) 57. Shock Plasma Waves (Hokusai 17… 2752.318985652319
    00:00/00:00
  • Measurements of switching speed 58. Measurements of switching spee… 2786.9869869869872
    00:00/00:00
  • Electro-optic Technique and Electronic Quenching 59. Electro-optic Technique and El… 2839.93993993994
    00:00/00:00
  • Terahertz Pulse 60. Terahertz Pulse 2845.2118785452121
    00:00/00:00
  • Optical pulse 61. Optical pulse 2855.1885218551888
    00:00/00:00
  • THz and optical pulses Optical and THz pulse overlapping s 62. THz and optical pulses Optical… 2866.866866866867
    00:00/00:00
  • Large sensitivity enhancement 63. Large sensitivity enhancement 2872.0053386720056
    00:00/00:00
  • THz Gap 64. THz Gap 2885.2185518852189
    00:00/00:00
  • APPLICATIONS of THz TECHNOLOGY 65. APPLICATIONS of THz TECHNOLOGY 2958.8588588588591
    00:00/00:00
  • THz technology and plasmonic devices 66. THz technology and plasmonic d… 3037.5041708375043
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  • Conclusions 67. Conclusions 3051.2846179512849
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  • I am grateful to my colleagues for their hard work, inspiration, and their pioneering contributions 68. I am grateful to my colleagues… 3115.7490824157494
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  • Acknowledgment 69. Acknowledgment 3126.2929596262929
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