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“Phase transforming cellular materials (PXCMs) are a class of materials whose unit cells exhibit multiple configurations (metastable or bistable) [1]. The geometrical structure of the PXCM can change to increase the energy absorbed. The hysteretic nature of the PXCM makes the potential application of these cellular materials extremely versatile”[1]. The objective was to be able to research within the 3D realm for the purpose of constructing a 3D PXCM.

A well known PXCM has a sinusoidal beam mechanism. During the summer the research group decided to test different geometries, in this case, shells were created with tennis balls.


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NCN Summer Undergraduate Research Experience 2018

National Science Foundation

General Motors


[1] D. Restrepo, N. D. Mankame, and P. D. Zavattieri. “Phase transforming cellular materials”. Extrem. Mech. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 52–60, 2015.

[2] M. Taffetani, X. Jiang, D.P. Holmes, D. Vella. “Static bistability of spherical caps”. Proc. R. Soc. A., vol. 474, 2018.

Cite this work

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

  • Valeria Grillo; ASHLEY MIN; Gavin Carter; Yunlan Zhang; Kristiaan William Hector; David Restrepo Arango; Chidubem Nuela Enebechi; Pablo Daniel Zavattieri; Nilesh Mankame (2018), "Phase Transforming Cellular Materials (Spherical Shells),"

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