- The Progression of Medicine
- Conventional "modern" medicine
- "Personalized" or "molecular" medicine
- Nanomedicine "single-cell" medicine
- How Conventional Medicine Works for Diagnosis of Disease
- Identification of the "diseased state"
- Simple measurements of body structure and function
- Follow-up clinical tests
- Internal examinations by non-invasive in-vivo imaging
- Molecular tests for specific gene properties
- Comparison of individual results with "normal ranges"
- How Conventional Medicine Works for Treatment of Disease
- Stabilization of patient – "heal thyself"
- Surgical repair of injuries
- Treatment with drugs locally
- Treatment with drugs systemically
- Treatment with targeted therapies
- Factors Limiting the Progress of Medicine
- Some Specific Problems with Conventional Medicine
- Consequences of waiting for patient symptoms
- Trained people and modern drugs are expensive
- Diagnostic technologies, if available, are still relatively primitive and/or expensive
- Crude targeting of drugs
- Personalized Medicine
- Based on genetic characteristics of the individual patient
- Specific gene rearrangments or mutations
- Specific SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms)
- Medicine performed at single cell level
- Possibility of "regenerative medicine"
- Blurring of distinction between prevention and treatment
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- Moein Moghimi,SM, Hunter,AC, Murray, JC: Nanomedicine: current status and future prospects. FASEB J. 19: 311–330, 2005.
- Liu, H. Webster, TJ Nanomedicine for implants: A review of studies and necessary experimental tools. Biomaterials 28: 354–369, 2007.
- Ulrich Pison, U., Tobias Welte, T., Michael Giersig, M., David A. Groneberg, D.A. Nanomedicine for respiratory diseases. European Journal of Pharmacology 533: 341–350, 2006.
- Logothetidis S: Nanotechnology in Medicine: The Medicine of Tomorrow and Nanomedicine. HIPPOKRATIA 10(1): 7-21, 2006.
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