- Outline – the need for single cell measures of nanotoxicity
- There is more than one way for a cell to die...
- Necrosis" vs. "Apoptosis"
- There are other forms of "toxicity"
- Some other challenges in measuring toxicity of nanomaterials
- Necrosis vs. Apoptosis mechanisms
- Necrosis is unplanned "cell injury"
- Apoptosis is planned "programmed cell death"
- Why it is important to distinguish between necrosis and apoptosis
- Single cell assays for necrosis and apoptosis
- Dye exclusion assays for necrosis
- TUNEL assays for late apoptosis
- Annexin V assays for early apoptosis
- COMET assays for DNA damage and repair
- Light scatter assays
- Nanotoxicity in vivo – some additional challenges
- Single cell nanotoxicity, plus....
- Accumulations of nanoparticles can change toxicity locally to tissues and organs
- Filtration issues of nanoparticles – size matters – toxicity to liver and lung
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