Silicon nanomembranes are extremely thin (<10 to 100s of nm), flexible, strain-engineered, single-crystal sheets. Their novelty is several-fold: they are flexible, they are readily transferable to other hosts and conform and bond easily, they are stackable, and they can take on a large range of shapes (tubes, spirals,ribbons, wires) via appropriate strain engineering and patterning. They provide the potential for new or enhanced application of Si
in fast flexible electronics; quantum electronics,1000 Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory
new nanophotonic, optoelectronic, and thermoelectric devices; and chemical and biological sensors. Many properties of bulk Si can be modified in SiNMs,including band structure and quantum properties, electronic transport, phonon distributions, and mechanical properties. Because they are so close, the two surfaces of the membrane become a significant influence on overall SiNM properties. In this talk I review SiNM processing (fabrication, strain engineering, and transfer) and some of the unexpected physical and electronic properties of
SiNMs. These include surface transfer doping via surface structures or absorbed layers, through-membrane elastic interactions to create periodic strain lattices, conduction band splitting and shifting with strain, and orientation- dependent carrier mobility enhancement with strain. Applications will be briefly addressed as time permits.
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
* J. A. Martin and M. G. Lagally, Low-Voltage Field Emission Gun, patent No. 4,427,886, January 24, 1984.
* S.H. Walker, R.D. Lorenz, and M.G. Lagally, Sensorless Control for Piezoelectric Positioners, patent No. 5,714,831, February 3, 1998.
* M. A. Eriksson, M. G. Friesen, R. J. Joynt, M. G. Lagally, D. W. van der Weide, P. Rugheimer, and D. E. Savage, Solid-State Quantum Dot Devices and Quantum Computing Using Nanostructured Logic Gates, patent No. 6,597,010, July 22, 2003.
* Lal, C. Hoon, P. Rugheimer, and M. Lagally, Stress Control of Semiconductor Microstructures for Thin Film Growth, patent No. 6,858,888, February 22, 2005.
* Bradley J. Larson, Chung Hoon Lee, Amit Lal, and M. G. Lagally, Methods and Apparata for Precisely Dispensing Microvolumes of Fluids, Patent No. 6,874,699, April 5, 2005.
* F. S. Denes, S. O. Manolache, J.Helgren, B. J. Larson, and M.G. Lagally, Plasma-Enhanced Functionalization of Inorganic Oxide Surfaces, patent application submitted, April 2004, P04163US.
* F. S. Denes, S. O. Manolache, L.E. Cruz-Barba, B. J. Larson, and M.G. Lagally, Plasma'Enhanced Functionalization of Carbon-Containing Substrates, patent application submitted, April 2004, P03334US.
* M.R. Roberts, D.E. Savage, and M.G. Lagally, Fabrication of Silicon/Silicon-Germanium Heterojunction Structures. application #P04286US, filed December 16, 2004
* D. M. Barnes, M. G. Lagally, B.J. Larson, and M.M. Vestling, Deposition of Samples and Sample Matrix for Enhancing the Sensitivity of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectroscopy, application #P04151US, filed December 29, 2004.
* 'Self-Organization of Semiconductor Nanocrystals by Selective Surface Faceting', B. Yang, P.P. Zhang, D.E. Savage, M.G. Lagally, G.-H. Lu, M.-H. Huang, and Feng Liu, Phys Rev, submitted.
* 'Germanium Hut Nanostressors on Free-Standing Ultrathin SOI', M. M. Roberts, Daniel Tinberg, P. G. Evans, M. G. Lagally, C.-H. Lee, Yanan Xiao, Barry Lai, and Zhonghou Cai, Proceedings of the Electrochemical Society (2005), submitted.
* "Fast Thin-Film Transistors on Transferable Elastically Strain-Sharing Si/SiGe/Si Nanomembranes', H.-C. Yuan, M. M. Roberts, D. E. Savage, G. K. Celler, M.G. Lagally, Z.-Q. Ma, Science, submitted.
* 'High-Speed Strained-Single-Crystal Silicon Thin-Film Transistors on Flexible Polymers', Hao-Chih Yuan, Michelle M. Roberts, Donald E. Savage, Zhenqiang Ma, and Max G. Lagally, J. Appl. Phys., submitted .
* 'Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy of Ultra-thin Silicon-on-Insulator', P. P. Zhang, E. Tevaarwerk, B. N. Park, D. E. Savage, G. Celler, I. Knezevic, P. G. Evans, M. A. Eriksson, and M. G. Lagally, Springer Proceedings in Physics, in press.
* 'Elastically Relaxed Free-Standing Strained-Si Nanomembranes', M.M. Roberts, L.J. Klein, D.E. Savage, M. Friesen, G. K. Celler, M.A. Eriksson, and M.G. Lagally, Nature Materials, submitted.
* 'Nanomechanical Architecture of Strained Bilayer Thin Films: From Design Principles to Experimental Fabrication', Minghuang Huang, C. Boone, M. Roberts, D. E. Savage, M. G. Lagally, N. Shaji, H. Qin, R. Blick, J. A. Nairn, and Feng Liu, Adv. Mater. (in press) .
* 'Electronic Transport in Nanometer-Scale Silicon-on-Insulator', P. P. Zhang, Emma Tevaarwerk, B.-N. Park, D. E. Savage, G. Celler, I. Knezevic, P.G. Evans, M. A. Eriksson, and M. G. Lagally, Nature, submitted.
* 'Formation of Micro Tubes from Strained SiGe/Si Heterostructures', H. Qin, N. Shaji, N. E. Merrill, Hyun S. Kim, R. C. Toonen, R. H. Blick, M.M. Roberts, D. E. Savage, M. G. Lagally, and G. Celler, New J. of Physics, submitted.
* 'Bending of Nanoscale Ultrathin Substrates by Growth of Strained Thin Films and Islands', Minghuang Huang, P. Rugheimer, M. G. Lagally, and Feng Liu, Phys. Rev. 72, 085450 (2005). Also September 5, 2005 issue of Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology.
* 'Germanium Hut Nanostressors on Freestanding Thin Silicon Membranes', P. G. Evans, D. S. Tinberg, M. M. Roberts, M. G. Lagally,Y. Xiao, B. Lai, and Z. Cai, Appl. Phys. Letters 87, 073112 (2005). Also August 22, 2005 issue of Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology.
* 'Cold-Plasma Modification of Oxide Surfaces for Covalent Biomolecule Attachment', B. J. Larson, J.M. Helgren, S. O. Manolache, M. G. Lagally, and F. S. Denes, Biosensors, in press.
* 'Template-Directed Nanotube Network Using Self-Ordered Si Nanocrystals', B. Yang, M.S. Marcus, H. F. Tang, P.P. Zhang, Z.W. Li, B.J. Larson. D.E. Savage, J.M. Simmons, O. M. Castellini, M.A. Eriksson, and M.G. Lagally, Appl. Phys. Letters 86, 263107 (2005).
* 'Microfabricated Strained Substrates for Ge Epitaxial Growth', P. G. Evans, P. P. Rugheimer, M. G. Lagally, C. H. Lee, A. Lal, Y. Xiao, B. Lai, and Z. Cai, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 103501 (2005).
* "Bed of Nails on Silicon', M.G. Lagally and R.H Blick, (News and Views) Nature 432, 450 November 26, (2004).
* 'Photoluminescence and Local Structure of Ge Nanoclusters on Si(001) without a Wetting Layer', A. P. Li, F. Flack, M.F. Chisholm, K. Yoo, Zhenyu Zhang, H. Weitering, J. Wendelken, and M. Lagally, Phys. Rev. B69, 245310 (2004). Also in Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology 9, June 28 (2004).
* 'Quantifying the Thickness of Magnetically Active Layers Using X-ray Resonant Magnetic Scattering', B.M. Barnes, Z. W. Li, D.E. Savage, E. Wiedemann, and M.G. Lagally, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 6654 (2004).
* 'Controlled Deposition of Picoliter Amounts of Fluid Using an Ultrasonically Driven Micropipette', B. J. Larson, S. D. Gillmor, and M.G. Lagally, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 832 (2004). Also in Virtual J. of Nanoscale Science and Technology 9, March 22 (2004). Also in Virtual J. of Biological Physics Research 7, March 15 (2004).
* 'Local-Strain-Mediated-Chemical-Potential Control of Quantum Dot Self-Organization in Heteroepitaxy', B. Yang, F. Liu, and M. G. Lagally, Phys. Rev. Letters 92, 025502-1 (2004).
* 'Transition from Reciprocal-Space to Real-Space Surface Science ' the Advent of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope', M.G. Lagally, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A21, S54 (2003) (invited).