Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion simulator

This tool calculates the optimal distribution of particles subject to a Coulombic potential on the surface of a sphere.

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Archive Version 1.1.0
Published on 30 Jun 2010 All versions

doi:10.4231/D34X54G5X cite this



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This tool calculates the distribution of N particles (from two to sixty) on the surface of a sphere. If the energy of interaction (V) between two particles (i, j) is Coulombic (i. e. V=1/Rij, where Rij is the distance between the particles), what is the distribution with the lowest energy? This tool is intended to perform the calculations required to study this sort of problem. We can regard this problem as a generalized version of the VSEPR model, which justifies the molecular structure of simple systems by the distribution of the pairs of valence electrons in the space of a central atom.


(a) Gillespie, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 18. (b) Models of molecular geometry, Gillespie R. J.; Robinson E. A. Chem. Soc. Rev. 2005, 34, 396. Ligand Close packing model: (c) Gillespie, R. J.; Robinson, E. A. Adv. Mol. Struct. Res., 1998, 4, 1. (d) Gillespie, R. J.; Heard, G. L.; Robinson, E. A. J. Mol. Struct. 1999, 485, 305. (e) Gillespie, R. J. Coord. Chem. Rev. 2000, 51, 197.

Cite this work

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

  • Baudilio Tejerina (2014), "Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion simulator," (DOI: 10.4231/D34X54G5X).

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