By Mark R. Pinto1, kent smith, Muhammad Alam2, Steven Clark2, Xufeng Wang2, Gerhard Klimeck2, Dragica Vasileska3

1. Applied Materials, Inc. 2. Purdue University 3. Arizona State University

2D/3D devices under steady state, transient conditions or AC small-signal analysis

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Published on 31 Oct 2012 All versions

doi:10.4231/D3RJ48T5G cite this



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PADRE is a 2D/3D simulator for electronic devices, such as MOSFET transistors. It can simulate physical structures of arbitrary geometry--including heterostructures--with arbitrary doping profiles, which can be obtained using analytical functions or directly from multidimensional process simulators such as Prophet. For each electrical bias, PADRE solves a coupled set of partial differential equations (PDEs). A variety of PDE systems are supported which form a hierarchy of accuracy:
  • electrostatic (Poisson equation)
  • drift-diffusion (including carrier continuity equations)
  • energy balance (including carrier temperature)
  • electrothermal (including lattice heating)
A variety of supplemental documents are available that deal with the PADRE software and TCAD simulation:


PADRE was developed at Bell Labs by Mark Pinto, R. Kent Smith, and Ashraful Alam.

Additional developments were made in collaboration by the following:

Steven Clark rappture interface
Xufeng Wang rappture interface
Gerhard Klimeck interface and output requirements
Dragica Vasileska sample inputs and output requirements

Cite this work

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

  • Mark R. Pinto; kent smith; Muhammad Alam; Steven Clark; Xufeng Wang; Gerhard Klimeck; Dragica Vasileska (2014), "Padre," (DOI: 10.4231/D3RJ48T5G).

    BibTex | EndNote


  1. nanotransistors
  2. nanotransistors
  3. nanotransistors
  4. nanoelectronics
  5. nanoelectronics
  6. nanoelectronics
  7. microelectronics
  8. microelectronics
  9. microelectronics
  10. transport/Boltzmann
  11. transport/Boltzmann
  12. transport/Boltzmann
  13. transport/Drift-Diffusion
  14. transport/Drift-Diffusion
  15. transport/Drift-Diffusion
  16. Padre
  17. ACUTE