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On June 30, 1948, AT&T Bell Labs unveiled the transitor to the world, creating a spark of explosive economic growth that would lead into the Information Age. William Shockley led a team of researchers, including Walter Brattain and John Bardeen, who invented the device. Like the existing triode vacuum tube device, the transistor could amplify signals and switch currents on and off, but the transistor was smaller, cheaper, and more efficient. Moreover, it could be integrated with millions of other transistors onto a single chip, creating the integrated circuit at the heart of modern computers.
Today, most transistors are being manufactured with a minimum feature size of 60-90nm--roughly 200-300 atoms. As the push continues to make devices even smaller, researchers must account for quantum mechanical effects in the device behavior. With fewer and fewer atoms, the positions of impurities and other irregularities begin to matter, and device reliability becomes an issue. So rather than shrink existing devices, many researchers are working on entirely new devices, based on carbon nanotubes, spintronics,
molecular conduction, and other nanotechnologies.
Learn more about transistors from the many resources on this site, listed below. Use our simulation tools to simulate performance characteristics for your own devices.
Molecular Transport Structures: Elastic Scattering, Vibronic Effects and Beyond
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13 Feb 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Mark A. Ratner, Abraham Nitzan, Misha Galperin
Current experimental efforts are clarifying quite beautifully the nature of charge transport in so-called molecular junctions, in which a single molecule provides the channel for current flow between …
Making the Tiniest and Fastest Transistor using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)
13 Feb 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Peide "Peter" Ye
Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is an emerging nanotechnology enables the deposit of ultrathin films, one atomic layer by one atomic layer. ALD provides a powerful, new capability to grow or regrow …
Active Photonic Nanomaterials: From Random to Periodic Structures
06 Feb 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Hui Cao
Active photonic nanomaterials, which have high gain or large nonlinearity, are essential to the development of nanophotonic devices and circuits. In this talk, I will provide a review of our …
A Primer on Semiconductor Device Simulation
23 Jan 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Mark Lundstrom
Computer simulation is now an essential tool for the research and development of semiconductor processes and devices, but to use a simulation tool intelligently, one must know what's "under the …
Nano-Scale Device Simulations Using PROPHET-Part II: PDE Systems
20 Jan 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Yang Liu, Robert Dutton
Part II uses examples to illustrate how to build user-defined PDE systems in PROPHET.
Nano-Scale Device Simulations Using PROPHET-Part I: Basics
Part I covers the basics of PROPHET, including the set-up of simulation structures and parameters based on pre-defined PDE systems.
Nano-Scale Device Simulations Using PROPHET
These two lectures are aimed to give a practical guide to the use of a general device simulator (PROPHET) available on nanoHUB. PROPHET is a partial differential equation (PDE) solver that offers …
Optimization of Transistor Design for Carbon Nanotubes
20 Jan 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Jing Guo
We have developed a self-consistent atomistic simulator for CNTFETs. Using the simulator, we show that a recently reported high-performance CNTFET delivers a near ballistic on-current. The …
Quantum Corrections for Monte Carlo Simulation
05 Jan 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Umberto Ravaioli
Size quantization is an important effect in modern scaled devices. Due to the cost and limitations of available full quantum approaches, it is appealing to extend semi-classical simulators by adding …
Designing Nanocomposite Materials for Solid-State Energy Conversion
10 Nov 2005 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Timothy D. Sands
New materials will be necessary to break through today's performance envelopes for solid-state energy conversion devices ranging from LED-based solid-state white lamps to thermoelectric devices …
Atomic Force Microscopy
01 Dec 2005 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Arvind Raman
Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is an indispensible tool in nano science for the fabrication, metrology, manipulation, and property characterization of nanostructures. This tutorial reviews some of the …
First Principles-based Atomistic and Mesoscale Modeling of Materials
01 Dec 2005 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Alejandro Strachan
This tutorial will describe some of the most powerful and widely used techniques for materials modeling including i) first principles quantum mechanics (QM), ii) large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) …
Designing Nanocomposite Thermoelectric Materials
08 Nov 2005 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Timothy D. Sands
This tutorial reviews recent strategies for designing high-ZT nanostructured materials, including superlattices, embedded quantum dots, and nanowire composites. The tutorial highlights the challenges …
Bandstructure in Nanoelectronics
01 Nov 2005 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Gerhard Klimeck
This presentation will highlight, for nanoelectronic device examples, how the effective mass approximation breaks down and why the quantum mechanical nature of the atomically resolved material needs …
An Electrical Engineering Perspective on Molecular Electronics
26 Oct 2005 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Mark Lundstrom
After forty years of advances in integrated circuit technology, microelectronics is undergoing a transformation to nanoelectronics. Modern day MOSFETs now have channel lengths that are less than 50 …
Wireless Integrated MicroSystems (WIMS): Coming Revolution in the Gathering of Information
01 Sep 2005 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Kensall D. Wise
Wireless integrated microsystems promise to become pervasive during the coming decade in applications ranging from health care and environmental monitoring to homeland security. Merging low-power …
Simple Theory of the Ballistic MOSFET
11 Oct 2005 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Mark Lundstrom
Silicon nanoelectronics has become silicon nanoelectronics, but we still analyze, design, and think about MOSFETs in more or less in the same way that we did 30 years ago. In this talk, I will …
Laser Cooling of Solids
06 Oct 2005 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Massoud Kaviany
Enhanced laser cooling of ion doped nanocrystalline powders (e.g., Yb3+: Y2O3) can be achieved by enhancing the anti-Stokes, off-resonance absorption, which is proportional to the three …
Semiconductor Interfaces at the Nanoscale
17 Oct 2005 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): David Janes
The trend in downscaling of electronic devices and the need to add functionalities such as sensing and nonvolatile memory to existing circuitry dictate that new approaches be developed for device …
Plasmonic Nanophotonics: Coupling Light to Nanostructure via Plasmons
03 Oct 2005 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Vladimir M. Shalaev
The photon is the ultimate unit of information because it packages data in a signal of zero mass and has unmatched speed. The power of light is driving the photonicrevolution, and information …
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