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On June 30, 1948, AT&T Bell Labs unveiled the transitor to the world, creating a spark of explosive economic growth that would lead into the Information Age. William Shockley led a team of researchers, including Walter Brattain and John Bardeen, who invented the device. Like the existing triode vacuum tube device, the transistor could amplify signals and switch currents on and off, but the transistor was smaller, cheaper, and more efficient. Moreover, it could be integrated with millions of other transistors onto a single chip, creating the integrated circuit at the heart of modern computers.
Today, most transistors are being manufactured with a minimum feature size of 60-90nm--roughly 200-300 atoms. As the push continues to make devices even smaller, researchers must account for quantum mechanical effects in the device behavior. With fewer and fewer atoms, the positions of impurities and other irregularities begin to matter, and device reliability becomes an issue. So rather than shrink existing devices, many researchers are working on entirely new devices, based on carbon nanotubes, spintronics,
molecular conduction, and other nanotechnologies.
Learn more about transistors from the many resources on this site, listed below. Use our simulation tools to simulate performance characteristics for your own devices.
ECE 606 Lecture 6: Bandgap, Mass Measurements and Fermi-Dirac Statistics
28 Sep 2012 | | Contributor(s):: Gerhard Klimeck
ECE 606 Lecture 7: Intrinsic semiconductors and Concepts of Doping
ECE 606 Lecture 8: Temperature Dependent Carrier Density Concepts of Recombination
ECE 606 Lecture 9: Recombination Process and Rates
ECE 606 Lecture 4: Periodic Potentials Solutions of Schrödinger's Equation
14 Sep 2012 | | Contributor(s):: Gerhard Klimeck
ECE 606 Lecture 2: Quantum Mechanics
ECE 606 Lecture 3: Emergence of Bandstructure
31 Aug 2012 | | Contributor(s):: Gerhard Klimeck
Table of Contents:00:00ECE606: Solid State Devices Lecture 300:24Motivation01:17Time-independent Schrodinger Equation02:22Time-independent Schrodinger Equation04:23A Simple Differential Equation05:29Presentation Outline05:46Full Problem Difficult: Toy Problems First06:07Case 1: Solution for...
ECE 606 Lecture 1: Introduction/Crystal Classification
30 Aug 2012 | | Contributor(s):: Gerhard Klimeck
Nanophotonics with Metamaterials
27 Aug 2012 | | Contributor(s):: Vladimir M. Shalaev
One of the most unique properties of light is that it can package information into a signal of zero mass and propagate it at the ultimate speed. It is, however, a daunting challenge to bring photonic devices to the nanometer scale because of the fundamental diffraction limit. Metamaterials can...
All-Spin Logic Devices
19 Jul 2012 | | Contributor(s):: Behtash Behinaein
We propose a spintronic device that uses spin at every stage of its operation: input and output information are represented by the magnetization of nanomagnets which communicate through spin-coherent channels. Based on simulations with an experimentally benchmarked model we argue that the device...
Journey Along the Carbon Road
19 Apr 2012 | | Contributor(s):: Zhihong Chen
I will discuss two distinct topics: In the first part of my talk I will present results on carbon nanotubes focusing on high performance computing with the aim to replace silicon in logic device applications. Specifically, the ballistic transport regime that has been reached with the shortest...
The History of Semiconductor Heterostructures Research: From Early Double Heterostructure Concept to Modern Quantum Dot Structures
11 Jul 2011 | | Contributor(s):: Zhores I. Alferov
It would be very difficult today to imagine solid-state physics without semiconductor heterostructures. Semiconductor heterostructures and especially double heterostructures, including quantum wells, quantum wires and quantum dots, currently comprise the object of investigation of two thirds of...
The Elusive Spin Transistor
11 Apr 2011 | | Contributor(s):: Supriyo Datta
This presentation is a short introductory tutorial on spin-transistors.
Control of Spin Precession in a Datta-Das Transistor Structure
11 Apr 2011 | | Contributor(s):: Hyun Cheol Koo
Transistors Switch onto Spin Using the spin of an electron in addition to, or instead of, the charge properties is believed to have many benefits in terms of speed, power-cost, and integration density over conventional electronic circuits. At the heart of the field of spintronics has been a...
Keithley 4200-SCS Lecture 12: Ultra-fast I-V for Pulsed and Transient Characterization
24 Jan 2011 | | Contributor(s):: Lee Stauffer
Keithley 4200-SCS Lecture 01: Introduction - System Overview - DC I-V Source Measurement
20 Jan 2011 | | Contributor(s):: Lee Stauffer
Introduction to Device Characterization -System Overview: System Architecture, Hardware Features and Software Features -Precision DC I-V Source-Measure Features and Concepts.
Keithley 4200-SCS Lecture 02: Basics of Keithley Interactive Test Environment (KITE)
Keithley 4200-SCS Lecture 03: More KITE Setup and Features
Keithley 4200-SCS Lecture 04: Speed and Timing Considerations
Keithley 4200-SCS Lecture 05: Low Current and High Resistance Measurements