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On June 30, 1948, AT&T Bell Labs unveiled the transitor to the world, creating a spark of explosive economic growth that would lead into the Information Age. William Shockley led a team of researchers, including Walter Brattain and John Bardeen, who invented the device. Like the existing triode vacuum tube device, the transistor could amplify signals and switch currents on and off, but the transistor was smaller, cheaper, and more efficient. Moreover, it could be integrated with millions of other transistors onto a single chip, creating the integrated circuit at the heart of modern computers.
Today, most transistors are being manufactured with a minimum feature size of 60-90nm--roughly 200-300 atoms. As the push continues to make devices even smaller, researchers must account for quantum mechanical effects in the device behavior. With fewer and fewer atoms, the positions of impurities and other irregularities begin to matter, and device reliability becomes an issue. So rather than shrink existing devices, many researchers are working on entirely new devices, based on carbon nanotubes, spintronics,
molecular conduction, and other nanotechnologies.
Learn more about transistors from the many resources on this site, listed below. Use our simulation tools to simulate performance characteristics for your own devices.
ECE 695A Lecture 1: Reliability of Nanoelectronic Devices
11 Jan 2013 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad Alam
Outline:Evolving Landscape of ElectronicsPerformance, Variability, and ReliabilityClassification of ReliabilityCourse InformationConclusions
ECE 606 Lecture 27: Looking Back and Looking Forward
20 Dec 2012 | | Contributor(s):: Gerhard Klimeck
ECE 606 Lecture 26: The Future of Computational Electronics
Future Transistors and Single Atom Transistors; New Modeling Tools (NEMO); nanoHUB: Cloud Computing - Software as a Service
ECE 606 Lecture 21: MOS Electrostatics
26 Nov 2012 | | Contributor(s):: Gerhard Klimeck
ECE 606 Lecture 22: MOScap Frequence Response/MOSFET I-V Characteristics
ECE 606 Lecture 23: MOSFET I-V Characteristics/MOSFET Non-Idealities
ECE 606 Lecture 24: MOSFET Non-Idealities
ECE 606 Lecture 20: Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor
17 Nov 2012 | | Contributor(s):: Gerhard Klimeck
ECE 606 Lecture 19: Bipolar Transistors Design
ECE 606 Lecture 18: Bipolar Transistors a) Introduction b) Design
05 Nov 2012 | | Contributor(s):: Gerhard Klimeck
Uniform Methodology of Benchmarking Beyond-CMOS Devices
31 Oct 2012 | | Contributor(s):: Dmitri Nikonov
Multiple logic devices are presently under study within the Nanoelectronic Research Initiative (NRI) to carry the development of integrated circuits beyond the CMOS roadmap. Structure and operational principles of these devices are described.Theories used for benchmarking these devices are...
ECE 606 Lecture 17: Shottky Diode
29 Oct 2012 | | Contributor(s):: Gerhard Klimeck
ECE 606 Lecture 16: p-n Diode AC Response
24 Oct 2012 | | Contributor(s):: Gerhard Klimeck
ECE 606 Lecture 15: p-n Diode Characteristics
17 Oct 2012 | | Contributor(s):: Gerhard Klimeck
ECE 606 Lecture 13: Solutions of the Continuity Equations - Analytical & Numerical
12 Oct 2012 | | Contributor(s):: Gerhard Klimeck
ECE 606 Lecture 11: Interface States Recombination/Carrier Transport
10 Oct 2012 | | Contributor(s):: Gerhard Klimeck
ECE 606 Lecture 12: High Field, Mobility, Hall Effect, Diffusion
ECE 606 Lecture 14: p-n Junctions
04 Oct 2012 | | Contributor(s):: Gerhard Klimeck
ECE 606 Lecture 10: Shockley, Reed, Hall and other Recombinations
30 Sep 2012 | | Contributor(s):: Gerhard Klimeck
ECE 606 Lecture 5: Density of States
28 Sep 2012 | | Contributor(s):: Gerhard Klimeck