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On June 30, 1948, AT&T Bell Labs unveiled the transitor to the world, creating a spark of explosive economic growth that would lead into the Information Age. William Shockley led a team of researchers, including Walter Brattain and John Bardeen, who invented the device. Like the existing triode vacuum tube device, the transistor could amplify signals and switch currents on and off, but the transistor was smaller, cheaper, and more efficient. Moreover, it could be integrated with millions of other transistors onto a single chip, creating the integrated circuit at the heart of modern computers.
Today, most transistors are being manufactured with a minimum feature size of 60-90nm--roughly 200-300 atoms. As the push continues to make devices even smaller, researchers must account for quantum mechanical effects in the device behavior. With fewer and fewer atoms, the positions of impurities and other irregularities begin to matter, and device reliability becomes an issue. So rather than shrink existing devices, many researchers are working on entirely new devices, based on carbon nanotubes, spintronics,
molecular conduction, and other nanotechnologies.
Learn more about transistors from the many resources on this site, listed below. Use our simulation tools to simulate performance characteristics for your own devices.
Nanotubes and Nanowires: One-dimensional Materials
5.0 out of 5 stars
17 Jul 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Timothy D. Sands
What is a nanowire? What is a nanotube? Why are they interesting and what are their potential applications? How are they made? This presentation is intended to begin to answer these questions...
Exploring Electron Transfer with Density Functional Theory
0.0 out of 5 stars
03 Jul 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Troy Van Voorhis
This talk will highlight several illustrative applications of constrained density functional
theory (DFT) to electron transfer dynamics in electronic materials. The kinetics of these
History of Semiconductor Engineering
28 Jun 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Bo Lojek
When basic researchers started working on semiconductors during the late nineteen thirties and on integrated circuits at the end of the nineteen fifties, they did not know that their work would...
NanoMOS 3.0: First-Time User Guide
06 Jun 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Kurtis Cantley, Mark Lundstrom
This tutorial is an introduction to the nanoMOS simulation tool for new users. Descriptions of input and output parameters are included, along with new features associated with the Rappture...
Logic Devices and Circuits on Carbon Nanotubes
23 May 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Joerg Appenzeller
Over the last years carbon nanotubes (CNs) have attracted an increasing interest as building blocks for nano-electronics applications. Due to their unique properties enabling e.g. ballistic...
Switching Energy in CMOS Logic: How far are we from physical limit?
24 Apr 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Saibal Mukhopadhyay
Aggressive scaling of CMOS devices in technology generation has resulted in exponential growth in device performance, integration density and computing power. However, the power dissipated by a...
First Principles-Based Modeling of materials: Towards Computational Materials Design
20 Apr 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Alejandro Strachan
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with accurate, first principles-based interatomic potentials is a powerful tool to uncover and characterize the molecular-level mechanisms that govern the...
Nanoscale Transistors: Advanced VLSI Devices (Introductory Lecture)
20 Apr 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Mark Lundstrom
Welcome to the ECE 612 Introductory/Overview lecture. This course examines the device physics of advanced transistors and the process, device, circuit, and systems considerations that enter into...
EDA Challenges in Nanoscale Design: A Synopsys Perspective
11 Apr 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Rich Goldman
Rich Goldman gives an overview of the current state of
the semiconductor and EDA (Electronic Design Automation) industry with a
special focus on the impact of nanometer scale design on design...
The Long and Short of Pick-up Stick Transistors: A Promising Technology for Nano- and Macro-Electronics
11 Apr 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Muhammad A. Alam
In recent years, there has been enormous interest in the emerging field of large-area macro-electronics, and fabricating thin-film transistors on flexible substrates. This talk will cover recent...
Tutorial on Using Micelle-MD
05 Apr 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Patrick Chiu, Kunal Shah, Susan Sinnott
This is a tutorial using Micelle-MD. This includes the main
capabilities, computation procedure, with format of files
generated, and the simulation setup, which includes the material
Mechanical Properties of Surfactant Aggregates at Water-Solid Interfaces
This is a talk on the mechanical properties of surfactant
aggregates at water-solid interfaces using Micelle-MD. This
includes silica indentations of micelles with comparison to
Thermal Microsystems for On-Chip Thermal Engineering
04 Apr 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Suresh V. Garimella
Electro-thermal co-design at the micro- and nano-scales is critical for
achieving desired performance and reliability in microelectronic circuits.
Emerging thermal microsystems technologies...
Electron and Ion Microscopies as Characterization Tools for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
4.0 out of 5 stars
17 Mar 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Eric Stach
This tutorial presents a broad overview of the basic physical principles of techniques used in scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as well as their application to understanding...
Metal Oxide Nanowires: Synthesis, Characterization and Device Applications
17 Mar 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Jia Grace Lu
Various metal oxide nanowires, such as ZnO, SnO2, Fe2O3, In2O3 and Ga2O3, have been synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method. Their structures and properties are
characterized by TEM,...
Molecular Transport Structures: Elastic Scattering, Vibronic Effects and Beyond
4.5 out of 5 stars
13 Feb 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Mark A. Ratner, Abraham Nitzan, Misha Galperin
Current experimental efforts are clarifying quite beautifully the nature of charge transport in so-called molecular junctions, in which a single molecule provides the channel for current flow...
Making the Tiniest and Fastest Transistor using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)
13 Feb 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): peide ye
Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is an emerging nanotechnology enables the deposit of ultrathin films, one atomic layer by one atomic layer. ALD provides a powerful, new capability to grow or regrow...
Active Photonic Nanomaterials: From Random to Periodic Structures
06 Feb 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Hui Cao
Active photonic nanomaterials, which have high gain or large
nonlinearity, are essential to the development of nanophotonic
devices and circuits. In this talk, I will provide a review of our...
A Primer on Semiconductor Device Simulation
23 Jan 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Mark Lundstrom
Computer simulation is now an essential tool for the research and development of semiconductor processes and devices, but to use a simulation
tool intelligently, one must know what's "under the...
Nano-Scale Device Simulations Using PROPHET-Part II: PDE Systems
22 Jan 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Yang Liu, Robert Dutton
Part II uses examples to
illustrate how to build user-defined PDE systems in PROPHET.