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On June 30, 1948, AT&T Bell Labs unveiled the transitor to the world, creating a spark of explosive economic growth that would lead into the Information Age. William Shockley led a team of researchers, including Walter Brattain and John Bardeen, who invented the device. Like the existing triode vacuum tube device, the transistor could amplify signals and switch currents on and off, but the transistor was smaller, cheaper, and more efficient. Moreover, it could be integrated with millions of other transistors onto a single chip, creating the integrated circuit at the heart of modern computers.
Today, most transistors are being manufactured with a minimum feature size of 60-90nm--roughly 200-300 atoms. As the push continues to make devices even smaller, researchers must account for quantum mechanical effects in the device behavior. With fewer and fewer atoms, the positions of impurities and other irregularities begin to matter, and device reliability becomes an issue. So rather than shrink existing devices, many researchers are working on entirely new devices, based on carbon nanotubes, spintronics,
molecular conduction, and other nanotechnologies.
Learn more about transistors from the many resources on this site, listed below. Use our simulation tools to simulate performance characteristics for your own devices.
EDA Challenges in Nanoscale Design: A Synopsys Perspective
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11 Apr 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Rich Goldman
Rich Goldman gives an overview of the current state of
the semiconductor and EDA (Electronic Design Automation) industry with a
special focus on the impact of nanometer scale design on design...
The Long and Short of Pick-up Stick Transistors: A Promising Technology for Nano- and Macro-Electronics
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11 Apr 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Muhammad A. Alam
In recent years, there has been enormous interest in the emerging field of large-area macro-electronics, and fabricating thin-film transistors on flexible substrates. This talk will cover recent...
Tutorial on Using Micelle-MD
05 Apr 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Patrick Chiu, Kunal Shah, Susan Sinnott
This is a tutorial using Micelle-MD. This includes the main
capabilities, computation procedure, with format of files
generated, and the simulation setup, which includes the material
Mechanical Properties of Surfactant Aggregates at Water-Solid Interfaces
This is a talk on the mechanical properties of surfactant
aggregates at water-solid interfaces using Micelle-MD. This
includes silica indentations of micelles with comparison to
Thermal Microsystems for On-Chip Thermal Engineering
04 Apr 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Suresh V. Garimella
Electro-thermal co-design at the micro- and nano-scales is critical for
achieving desired performance and reliability in microelectronic circuits.
Emerging thermal microsystems technologies...
Electron and Ion Microscopies as Characterization Tools for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
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27 Feb 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Eric Stach
This tutorial presents a broad overview of the basic physical principles of techniques used in scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as well as their application to understanding...
Metal Oxide Nanowires: Synthesis, Characterization and Device Applications
07 Mar 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Jia Grace Lu
Various metal oxide nanowires, such as ZnO, SnO2, Fe2O3, In2O3 and Ga2O3, have been synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method. Their structures and properties are
characterized by TEM,...
Molecular Transport Structures: Elastic Scattering, Vibronic Effects and Beyond
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13 Feb 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Mark A. Ratner, Abraham Nitzan, Misha Galperin
Current experimental efforts are clarifying quite beautifully the nature of charge transport in so-called molecular junctions, in which a single molecule provides the channel for current flow...
Making the Tiniest and Fastest Transistor using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)
13 Feb 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): peide ye
Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is an emerging nanotechnology enables the deposit of ultrathin films, one atomic layer by one atomic layer. ALD provides a powerful, new capability to grow or regrow...
Active Photonic Nanomaterials: From Random to Periodic Structures
06 Feb 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Hui Cao
Active photonic nanomaterials, which have high gain or large
nonlinearity, are essential to the development of nanophotonic
devices and circuits. In this talk, I will provide a review of our...
A Primer on Semiconductor Device Simulation
23 Jan 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Mark Lundstrom
Computer simulation is now an essential tool for the research and development of semiconductor processes and devices, but to use a simulation
tool intelligently, one must know what's "under the...
Nano-Scale Device Simulations Using PROPHET-Part II: PDE Systems
20 Jan 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Yang Liu, Robert Dutton
Part II uses examples to
illustrate how to build user-defined PDE systems in PROPHET.
Nano-Scale Device Simulations Using PROPHET-Part I: Basics
Part I covers the basics of PROPHET,
including the set-up of simulation structures and parameters based on
pre-defined PDE systems.
Nano-Scale Device Simulations Using PROPHET
These two lectures are aimed to give a practical guide to the use of a
general device simulator
(PROPHET) available on nanoHUB. PROPHET
is a partial differential equation (PDE) solver that...
Optimization of Transistor Design for Carbon Nanotubes
20 Jan 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Jing Guo
We have developed a self-consistent atomistic simulator for CNTFETs.
Using the simulator, we show that a recently reported high-performance
CNTFET delivers a near ballistic on-current. The...
Quantum Corrections for Monte Carlo Simulation
05 Jan 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Umberto Ravaioli
Size quantization is an important effect in modern scaled devices. Due to the cost and limitations of available full quantum approaches, it is appealing to extend semi-classical simulators by...
Designing Nanocomposite Materials for Solid-State Energy Conversion
10 Nov 2005 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Timothy D. Sands
New materials will be necessary to break through today's performance envelopes for
solid-state energy conversion devices ranging from LED-based solid-state white lamps to
Atomic Force Microscopy
01 Dec 2005 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Arvind Raman
Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is an indispensible tool in nano science for the fabrication, metrology, manipulation, and property characterization of nanostructures. This tutorial reviews some of...
First Principles-based Atomistic and Mesoscale Modeling of Materials
01 Dec 2005 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Alejandro Strachan
This tutorial will describe some of the most powerful and widely used techniques for materials modeling including i) first principles quantum mechanics (QM), ii) large-scale molecular dynamics...
Designing Nanocomposite Thermoelectric Materials
08 Nov 2005 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Timothy D. Sands
This tutorial reviews recent strategies for designing high-ZT nanostructured materials, including superlattices, embedded quantum dots, and nanowire composites. The tutorial highlights the...