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On June 30, 1948, AT&T Bell Labs unveiled the transitor to the world, creating a spark of explosive economic growth that would lead into the Information Age. William Shockley led a team of researchers, including Walter Brattain and John Bardeen, who invented the device. Like the existing triode vacuum tube device, the transistor could amplify signals and switch currents on and off, but the transistor was smaller, cheaper, and more efficient. Moreover, it could be integrated with millions of other transistors onto a single chip, creating the integrated circuit at the heart of modern computers.
Today, most transistors are being manufactured with a minimum feature size of 60-90nm--roughly 200-300 atoms. As the push continues to make devices even smaller, researchers must account for quantum mechanical effects in the device behavior. With fewer and fewer atoms, the positions of impurities and other irregularities begin to matter, and device reliability becomes an issue. So rather than shrink existing devices, many researchers are working on entirely new devices, based on carbon nanotubes, spintronics,
molecular conduction, and other nanotechnologies.
Learn more about transistors from the many resources on this site, listed below. Use our simulation tools to simulate performance characteristics for your own devices.
Keithley 4200-SCS Lecture 08: 4210 CVU Instrument Module - Overview
20 Jan 2011 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Lee Stauffer
Theory of Operation and Measurement Overview
Keithley 4200-SCS Lecture 09: 4210 CVU Instrument Module - Measurement Techniques I
Measurement Techniques and Optimization
Keithley 4200-SCS Lecture 10: 4210 CVU Instrument Module - Measurement Techniques II
Keithley 4200-SCS Lecture 11: 4210 CVU Instrument Module - Troubleshooting
Atomistic Modeling and Simulation Tools for Nanoelectronics and their Deployment on nanoHUB.org
16 Dec 2010 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Gerhard Klimeck
At the nanometer scale the concepts of device and material meet and a new device is a new material and vice versa. While atomistic device representations are novel to device physicists, the...
Chemically Enhanced Carbon-Based Nanomaterials and Devices
09 Nov 2010 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Mark Hersam
Carbon-based nanomaterials have attracted significant attention due to their potential to enable and/or improve applications such as transistors, transparent conductors, solar cells, batteries,...
Discussion Session 2 (Lectures 3 and 4)
08 Sep 2010 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Supriyo Datta
“Electronics from the Bottom Up” is an educational initiative designed to bring a new perspective to the field of nano device engineering. It is co-sponsored by the Intel Foundation and the...
Lecture 3: Introduction to NEGF
“Electronics from the Bottom Up” is an educational initiative designed to bring a new perspective to the field of nano device engineering. It is co-sponsored by the Intel Foundation and...
Nanoelectronic Modeling Lecture 40: Performance Limitations of Graphene Nanoribbon Tunneling FETS due to Line Edge Roughness
05 Aug 2010 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Gerhard Klimeck, Mathieu Luisier
This presentation the effects of line edge roughness on graphene nano ribbon (GNR) transitors..
GNR TFET Simulation
pz Tight-Binding Orbital Model
Nanoelectronic Modeling Lecture 39: OMEN: Band-to-Band-Tunneling Transistors
This presentation discusses the motivation for band-to-band tunneling transistors to lower the power requirements of the next generation transistors. The capabilities of OMEN to model such...
Lecture 1b: Nanotransistors - A Bottom Up View
20 Jul 2010 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Mark Lundstrom
MOSFET scaling continues to take transistors to smaller and smaller dimensions. Today, the MOSFET is a true nanoelectronic device – one of enormous importance for computing, data storage, and...
2010 NCN Annual Review S13: External Education - Cal Poly Pomona
16 Jun 2010 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Tanya Faltens
Lecture 7: On Reliability and Randomness in Electronic Devices
14 Apr 2010 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Muhammad A. Alam
Lecture 9: Breakdown in Thick Dielectrics
05 Apr 2010 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Muhammad A. Alam
Breakdown in gas dielectric and Paschen’s law
Spatial and temporal dynamics during breakdown
Breakdown in bulk oxides: puzzle
Theory of pre-existing defects: Thin oxides
Lecture 8: Mechanics of Defect Generation and Gate Dielectric Breakdown
10 Mar 2010 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Muhammad A. Alam
Nanoelectronic Modeling Lecture 23: NEMO1D - Importance of New Boundary Conditions
09 Mar 2010 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Gerhard Klimeck
One of the key insights gained during the NEMO1D project was the development of new boundary conditions that enabled the modeling of realistically extended Resonant Tunneling Diodes (RTDs). The...
Illinois ECE 440 Solid State Electronic Devices, Lecture 22&23: P-N Junction Capacitance; Contacts
07 Mar 2010 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Eric Pop
Illinois ECE 440 Solid State Electronic Devices, Lecture 24: Narrow-base P-N Diode
Illinois ECE 440 Solid State Electronic Devices, Lecture 25: Intro to BJT
Illinois ECE 440 Solid State Electronic Devices, Lecture 26: Narrow-base BJT