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On June 30, 1948, AT&T Bell Labs unveiled the transitor to the world, creating a spark of explosive economic growth that would lead into the Information Age. William Shockley led a team of researchers, including Walter Brattain and John Bardeen, who invented the device. Like the existing triode vacuum tube device, the transistor could amplify signals and switch currents on and off, but the transistor was smaller, cheaper, and more efficient. Moreover, it could be integrated with millions of other transistors onto a single chip, creating the integrated circuit at the heart of modern computers.
Today, most transistors are being manufactured with a minimum feature size of 60-90nm--roughly 200-300 atoms. As the push continues to make devices even smaller, researchers must account for quantum mechanical effects in the device behavior. With fewer and fewer atoms, the positions of impurities and other irregularities begin to matter, and device reliability becomes an issue. So rather than shrink existing devices, many researchers are working on entirely new devices, based on carbon nanotubes, spintronics,
molecular conduction, and other nanotechnologies.
Learn more about transistors from the many resources on this site, listed below. Use our simulation tools to simulate performance characteristics for your own devices.
2010 NCN Annual Review S13: External Education - Cal Poly Pomona
16 Jun 2010 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Tanya Faltens
A Primer on Semiconductor Device Simulation
4.5 out of 5 stars
23 Jan 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Mark Lundstrom
Computer simulation is now an essential tool for the research and development of semiconductor processes and devices, but to use a simulation
tool intelligently, one must know what's "under the...
Active Photonic Nanomaterials: From Random to Periodic Structures
0.0 out of 5 stars
06 Feb 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Hui Cao
Active photonic nanomaterials, which have high gain or large
nonlinearity, are essential to the development of nanophotonic
devices and circuits. In this talk, I will provide a review of our...
All-Spin Logic Devices
19 Jul 2012 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Behtash Behinaein
We propose a spintronic device that uses spin at every
stage of its operation: input and output information are
represented by the magnetization of nanomagnets which
An Electrical Engineering Perspective on Molecular Electronics
4.0 out of 5 stars
26 Oct 2005 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Mark Lundstrom
After forty years of advances in integrated circuit technology, microelectronics is undergoing a transformation to nanoelectronics. Modern day MOSFETs now have channel lengths that are less than...
Atomic Force Microscopy
29 Nov 2005 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Arvind Raman
Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is an indispensible tool in nano science for the fabrication, metrology, manipulation, and property characterization of nanostructures. This tutorial reviews some of...
Atomistic Alloy Disorder in Nanostructures
26 Feb 2007 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Gerhard Klimeck
Electronic structure and quantum transport simulations are typically performed in perfectly ordered semiconductor structures. Bands and modes are defined resulting in quantized conduction and...
Atomistic Modeling and Simulation Tools for Nanoelectronics and their Deployment on nanoHUB.org
16 Dec 2010 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Gerhard Klimeck
At the nanometer scale the concepts of device and material meet and a new device is a new material and vice versa. While atomistic device representations are novel to device physicists, the...
Auger Generation as an Intrinsic Limit to Tunneling Field-Effect Transistor Performance
22 Sep 2016 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Jamie Teherani
Many in the microelectronics field view tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) as society’s best hope for achieving a > 10× power reduction for electronic devices; however,...
Bandstructure in Nanoelectronics
5.0 out of 5 stars
01 Nov 2005 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Gerhard Klimeck
This presentation will highlight, for nanoelectronic device examples, how the effective mass approximation breaks down and why the quantum mechanical nature of the atomically resolved material...
BNC Annual Research Symposium: Nanoelectronics and Semiconductor Devices
23 Apr 2007 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): David Janes
This presentation is part of a collection of presentations describing the projects, people, and capabilities enhanced by research performed in the Birck Center, and a look at plans for the...
Chemical Modification of GaAs with TAT Peptide and Alkylthiol Self-Assembled Monolayers
14 Aug 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Hamsa Jaganathan
The use of self-assembled monolayers (SAM) on semiconductors creates a basis for the design and creation of bioelectronics, such as biosensors. The interface between the surface and an organic...
Chemically Enhanced Carbon-Based Nanomaterials and Devices
09 Nov 2010 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Mark Hersam
Carbon-based nanomaterials have attracted significant attention due to their potential to enable and/or improve applications such as transistors, transparent conductors, solar cells, batteries,...
Control of Spin Precession in a Datta-Das Transistor Structure
11 Apr 2011 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Hyun Cheol Koo
Transistors Switch onto Spin
Using the spin of an electron in addition to, or instead of, the charge properties is believed to have many benefits in terms of speed, power-cost, and integration...
Design in the Nanometer Regime: Process Variation
29 Nov 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Kaushik Roy
Scaling of technology over the last few decades has produced an exponential growth in computing power of integrated circuits and an unprecedented number of transistors integrated into a single....
Design of CMOS Circuits in the Nanometer Regime: Leakage Tolerance
28 Nov 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Kaushik Roy
The scaling of technology has produced exponential growth in transistor development and computing power in the last few decades, but scaling still presents several challenges. These two lectures...
Designing Nanocomposite Materials for Solid-State Energy Conversion
28 Dec 2005 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Timothy D. Sands
New materials will be necessary to break through today's performance envelopes for
solid-state energy conversion devices ranging from LED-based solid-state white lamps to
Designing Nanocomposite Thermoelectric Materials
08 Nov 2005 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Timothy D. Sands
This tutorial reviews recent strategies for designing high-ZT nanostructured materials, including superlattices, embedded quantum dots, and nanowire composites. The tutorial highlights the...
Discussion Session 2 (Lectures 3 and 4)
08 Sep 2010 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Supriyo Datta
“Electronics from the Bottom Up” is an educational initiative designed to bring a new perspective to the field of nano device engineering. It is co-sponsored by the Intel Foundation and the...
14 Aug 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Margarita Shalaev
DNA is a relatively inexpensive and ubiquitous material that can be used as a scaffold for constructing nanowires. Our research focuses on the manufacturing of DNA-templated, magnetic nanowires....