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On June 30, 1948, AT&T Bell Labs unveiled the transitor to the world, creating a spark of explosive economic growth that would lead into the Information Age. William Shockley led a team of researchers, including Walter Brattain and John Bardeen, who invented the device. Like the existing triode vacuum tube device, the transistor could amplify signals and switch currents on and off, but the transistor was smaller, cheaper, and more efficient. Moreover, it could be integrated with millions of other transistors onto a single chip, creating the integrated circuit at the heart of modern computers.
Today, most transistors are being manufactured with a minimum feature size of 60-90nm--roughly 200-300 atoms. As the push continues to make devices even smaller, researchers must account for quantum mechanical effects in the device behavior. With fewer and fewer atoms, the positions of impurities and other irregularities begin to matter, and device reliability becomes an issue. So rather than shrink existing devices, many researchers are working on entirely new devices, based on carbon nanotubes, spintronics,
molecular conduction, and other nanotechnologies.
Learn more about transistors from the many resources on this site, listed below. Use our simulation tools to simulate performance characteristics for your own devices.
Analysis of DC Electrical Conductivity Models of Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites with Potential Application to Nanometric Electronic Devices
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12 Mar 2013 | Publications | Contributor(s): Rafael Vargas-Bernal, Gabriel Herrera-Pérez, Ma. Elena Calixto-Olalde, Margarita Tecpoyotl-Torres
The design of nanometric electronic devices requires novel materials for improving their electrical performance from stages of design until their fabrication. Until now, several DC electrical …
Dissipative Quantum Transport in Semiconductor Nanostructures
28 Dec 2011 | Publications | Contributor(s): Peter Greck
In this work, we investigate dissipative quantum transport properties of an open system. After presenting the background of ballistic quantum transport calculations, a simple scattering mechanism, …
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