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On June 30, 1948, AT&T Bell Labs unveiled the transitor to the world, creating a spark of explosive economic growth that would lead into the Information Age. William Shockley led a team of researchers, including Walter Brattain and John Bardeen, who invented the device. Like the existing triode vacuum tube device, the transistor could amplify signals and switch currents on and off, but the transistor was smaller, cheaper, and more efficient. Moreover, it could be integrated with millions of other transistors onto a single chip, creating the integrated circuit at the heart of modern computers.

Today, most transistors are being manufactured with a minimum feature size of 60-90nm--roughly 200-300 atoms. As the push continues to make devices even smaller, researchers must account for quantum mechanical effects in the device behavior. With fewer and fewer atoms, the positions of impurities and other irregularities begin to matter, and device reliability becomes an issue. So rather than shrink existing devices, many researchers are working on entirely new devices, based on carbon nanotubes, spintronics, molecular conduction, and other nanotechnologies.

Learn more about transistors from the many resources on this site, listed below. Use our simulation tools to simulate performance characteristics for your own devices.

Resources (241-260 of 301)

  1. Surface Analysis of Organic Monlayers Using FTIR and XPS

    02 Aug 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Jamie Nipple, Michael Toole, David Janes

    Current research concerning self-assembled monolayers (SAM) focuses on the fabrication of microelectronics utilizing a semiconductor/molecule/metal junction. This study seeks to investigate...

  2. NEMO 3D: Intel optimizations and Multiple Quantum Dot Simulations

    03 Aug 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Anish Dhanekula, Gerhard Klimeck

    NEMO-3D is a nanoelectronic modeling tool that analyzes the electronic structure of nanoscopic devices. Nanoelectronic devices such as Quantum Dots (QDs) can contain millions of atoms,. Therefore,...

  3. ECE 612 Nanoscale Transistors (Fall 2006)

    08 Aug 2006 | Courses | Contributor(s): Mark Lundstrom

    Additional material related to the topics discussed in this course course is available at Nanoscale Transistors is a five-week online...

  4. ECE 612 Introductory Lecture (Fall 06)

    08 Aug 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Mark Lundstrom

  5. ECE 612 Lecture 1: MOSFET Review

    08 Aug 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Mark Lundstrom

  6. ECE 612 Lecture 3: 1D MOS Electrostatics

    08 Aug 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Mark Lundstrom

  7. Nanotubes and Nanowires: One-dimensional Materials

    17 Jul 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Timothy D. Sands

    What is a nanowire? What is a nanotube? Why are they interesting and what are their potential applications? How are they made? This presentation is intended to begin to answer these questions...

  8. Exploring Electron Transfer with Density Functional Theory

    11 Jun 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Troy Van Voorhis

    This talk will highlight several illustrative applications of constrained density functional theory (DFT) to electron transfer dynamics in electronic materials. The kinetics of these reactions...

  9. History of Semiconductor Engineering

    28 Jun 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Bo Lojek

    When basic researchers started working on semiconductors during the late nineteen thirties and on integrated circuits at the end of the nineteen fifties, they did not know that their work would...

  10. NanoMOS 3.0: First-Time User Guide

    06 Jun 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Kurtis Cantley, Mark Lundstrom

    This tutorial is an introduction to the nanoMOS simulation tool for new users. Descriptions of input and output parameters are included, along with new features associated with the Rappture...

  11. Logic Devices and Circuits on Carbon Nanotubes

    05 Apr 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Joerg Appenzeller

    Over the last years carbon nanotubes (CNs) have attracted an increasing interest as building blocks for nano-electronics applications. Due to their unique properties enabling e.g. ballistic...

  12. Switching Energy in CMOS Logic: How far are we from physical limit?

    24 Apr 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Saibal Mukhopadhyay

    Aggressive scaling of CMOS devices in technology generation has resulted in exponential growth in device performance, integration density and computing power. However, the power dissipated by a...

  13. First Principles-Based Modeling of materials: Towards Computational Materials Design

    20 Apr 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Alejandro Strachan

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with accurate, first principles-based interatomic potentials is a powerful tool to uncover and characterize the molecular-level mechanisms that govern the...

  14. Nanoscale Transistors: Advanced VLSI Devices (Introductory Lecture)

    20 Apr 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Mark Lundstrom

    Welcome to the ECE 612 Introductory/Overview lecture. This course examines the device physics of advanced transistors and the process, device, circuit, and systems considerations that enter into...

  15. EDA Challenges in Nanoscale Design: A Synopsys Perspective

    11 Apr 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Rich Goldman

    Rich Goldman gives an overview of the current state of the semiconductor and EDA (Electronic Design Automation) industry with a special focus on the impact of nanometer scale design on design...

  16. The Long and Short of Pick-up Stick Transistors: A Promising Technology for Nano- and Macro-Electronics

    11 Apr 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Muhammad A. Alam

    In recent years, there has been enormous interest in the emerging field of large-area macro-electronics, and fabricating thin-film transistors on flexible substrates. This talk will cover recent...

  17. Tutorial on Using Micelle-MD

    05 Apr 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Patrick Chiu, Kunal Shah, Susan Sinnott

    This is a tutorial using Micelle-MD. This includes the main capabilities, computation procedure, with format of files generated, and the simulation setup, which includes the material models...

  18. Mechanical Properties of Surfactant Aggregates at Water-Solid Interfaces

    05 Apr 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Patrick Chiu, Kunal Shah, Susan Sinnott

    This is a talk on the mechanical properties of surfactant aggregates at water-solid interfaces using Micelle-MD. This includes silica indentations of micelles with comparison to experimental...

  19. Thermal Microsystems for On-Chip Thermal Engineering

    04 Apr 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Suresh V. Garimella

    Electro-thermal co-design at the micro- and nano-scales is critical for achieving desired performance and reliability in microelectronic circuits. Emerging thermal microsystems technologies...

  20. Electron and Ion Microscopies as Characterization Tools for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    27 Feb 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Eric Stach

    This tutorial presents a broad overview of the basic physical principles of techniques used in scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as well as their application to understanding..., a resource for nanoscience and nanotechnology, is supported by the National Science Foundation and other funding agencies. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.