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On June 30, 1948, AT&T Bell Labs unveiled the transitor to the world, creating a spark of explosive economic growth that would lead into the Information Age. William Shockley led a team of researchers, including Walter Brattain and John Bardeen, who invented the device. Like the existing triode vacuum tube device, the transistor could amplify signals and switch currents on and off, but the transistor was smaller, cheaper, and more efficient. Moreover, it could be integrated with millions of other transistors onto a single chip, creating the integrated circuit at the heart of modern computers.
Today, most transistors are being manufactured with a minimum feature size of 60-90nm--roughly 200-300 atoms. As the push continues to make devices even smaller, researchers must account for quantum mechanical effects in the device behavior. With fewer and fewer atoms, the positions of impurities and other irregularities begin to matter, and device reliability becomes an issue. So rather than shrink existing devices, many researchers are working on entirely new devices, based on carbon nanotubes, spintronics,
molecular conduction, and other nanotechnologies.
Learn more about transistors from the many resources on this site, listed below. Use our simulation tools to simulate performance characteristics for your own devices.
ECE 606 Lecture 11: Interface States Recombination/Carrier Transport
10 Oct 2012 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Gerhard Klimeck
ECE 606 Lecture 12: High Field, Mobility, Hall Effect, Diffusion
ECE 606 Lecture 14: p-n Junctions
04 Oct 2012 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Gerhard Klimeck
ECE 606 Lecture 10: Shockley, Reed, Hall and other Recombinations
30 Sep 2012 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Gerhard Klimeck
ECE 606 Lecture 5: Density of States
28 Sep 2012 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Gerhard Klimeck
ECE 606 Lecture 6: Bandgap, Mass Measurements and Fermi-Dirac Statistics
ECE 606 Lecture 7: Intrinsic semiconductors and Concepts of Doping
ECE 606 Lecture 8: Temperature Dependent Carrier Density Concepts of Recombination
ECE 606 Lecture 9: Recombination Process and Rates
ECE 606 Lecture 4: Periodic Potentials Solutions of Schrödinger's Equation
14 Sep 2012 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Gerhard Klimeck
ECE 606 Lecture 2: Quantum Mechanics
ECE 606 Lecture 3: Emergence of Bandstructure
31 Aug 2012 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Gerhard Klimeck
Table of Contents:
00:00 ECE606: Solid State Devices Lecture 3
01:17 Time-independent Schrodinger Equation
02:22 Time-independent Schrodinger Equation
04:23 A Simple...
ECE 606 Lecture 1: Introduction/Crystal Classification
30 Aug 2012 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Gerhard Klimeck
Nanophotonics with Metamaterials
27 Aug 2012 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Vladimir M. Shalaev
One of the most unique properties of light is that it can package information into a signal of zero mass and propagate it at the ultimate speed. It is, however, a daunting challenge to bring...
All-Spin Logic Devices
19 Jul 2012 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Behtash Behinaein
We propose a spintronic device that uses spin at every
stage of its operation: input and output information are
represented by the magnetization of nanomagnets which
Journey Along the Carbon Road
19 Apr 2012 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Zhihong Chen
I will discuss two distinct topics: In the first part of my talk I will present results on carbon nanotubes focusing on high performance computing with the aim to replace silicon in logic device...
Dissipative Quantum Transport in Semiconductor Nanostructures
28 Dec 2011 | Papers | Contributor(s): Peter Greck
In this work, we investigate dissipative quantum transport properties of an open system. After presenting the background of ballistic quantum transport calculations, a simple scattering mechanism,...
2011 NCN@Purdue Summer School: Electronics from the Bottom Up
20 Jul 2011 | Workshops
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The History of Semiconductor Heterostructures Research: From Early Double Heterostructure Concept to Modern Quantum Dot Structures
11 Jul 2011 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Zhores I. Alferov
It would be very difficult today to imagine solid-state physics without semiconductor heterostructures. Semiconductor heterostructures and especially double heterostructures, including quantum...
Quantitative Modeling and Simulation of Quantum Dots
18 Apr 2011 | Presentation Materials | Contributor(s): Muhammad Usman
Quantum dots grown by self-assembly process are typically constructed by 50,000 to 5,000,000 structural atoms which confine a small, countable number of extra electrons or holes in a space that is...