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On June 30, 1948, AT&T Bell Labs unveiled the transitor to the world, creating a spark of explosive economic growth that would lead into the Information Age. William Shockley led a team of researchers, including Walter Brattain and John Bardeen, who invented the device. Like the existing triode vacuum tube device, the transistor could amplify signals and switch currents on and off, but the transistor was smaller, cheaper, and more efficient. Moreover, it could be integrated with millions of other transistors onto a single chip, creating the integrated circuit at the heart of modern computers.
Today, most transistors are being manufactured with a minimum feature size of 60-90nm--roughly 200-300 atoms. As the push continues to make devices even smaller, researchers must account for quantum mechanical effects in the device behavior. With fewer and fewer atoms, the positions of impurities and other irregularities begin to matter, and device reliability becomes an issue. So rather than shrink existing devices, many researchers are working on entirely new devices, based on carbon nanotubes, spintronics,
molecular conduction, and other nanotechnologies.
Learn more about transistors from the many resources on this site, listed below. Use our simulation tools to simulate performance characteristics for your own devices.
Silicon Photonics: Opportunity Challenges and Recent Results
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02 Nov 2007 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Mario Paniccia
The silicon chip has been the mainstay of the electronics industry for the last 40 years and has revolutionized the way the world operates. Today a silicon chip the size of a fingernail contains …
Hexagonal Prism Blue Diode Laser Using Whispering Gallery Mode (WGM) Resonances
23 Oct 2007 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Sangho Kim
Semiconductor lasers have many important applications, including communication technologies, optical storage, printing, and molecular detection. The range of applications could be broadened …
Introduction of MEMS Activity at Nano/Micro System Engineering Lab., Kyoto University
15 Sep 2007 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Osamu Tabata
We are aiming at the realization of microsystems and nanosystems with novel and unique functions by integrating functional elements in different domains such as mechanics, electronics, chemistry, …
MCW07 Modeling Charging-based Switching in Molecular Transport Junctions
23 Aug 2007 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Sina Yeganeh, Misha Galperin, Mark A. Ratner
We will discuss several proposed explanations for the switching and negative differential resistance behavior seen in some molecular junctions. It is shown that a proposed polaron model is …
Electronics From the Bottom Up: top-down/bottom-up views of length
17 Aug 2007 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Muhammad A. Alam
When devices get small stochastic effects become important. Random dopant effects lead to uncertainties in a MOSFET’s threshold voltage and gate oxides breakdown is a random process. Even a …
The Nano-MOSFET: A brief introduction
17 Aug 2007 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Mark Lundstrom
MOSFET channel lengths are now well below 100nm, and getting smaller, but MOSFETs are still modeled and understood much as they were 30 years ago. Seminal work in the 1960’s laid the …
The Effect of Physical Geometry on the Frequency Response of Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors
03 Aug 2007 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Dave Lyzenga
In order for carbon nanotube (CNT) electrical devices to be fabricated, it is necessary to obtain modifiable operation characteristics. Developing parametric equations to achieve this controllability …
Introduction to and Advances in Self-Healing Polymers
14 Jun 2007 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Gerald O. Wilson
The presenter briefly introduces the topic of Self-Healing Polymer research and continues to give a Survey of Ruthenium Metathesis Catalysts for Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization-Based …
Orbital Mediated Tunneling in a New Unimolecular Rectifier
25 May 2007 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Robert Metzger, NCN SLC@Northwestern
In 1997 we showed that hexadecylquinolinium tricyanoquinodimethanide is a unimolecular rectifier, by scanning tunneling microscopy and also as a Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayer, sandwiched between …
Piezoelectric Transducers: Strain Sensing and Energy Harvesting (and Frequency Tuning)
15 Jun 2007 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Toshikazu Nishida
Acoustic pressure or mechanical force sensing via piezoelectric coupling is closely related to the harvesting of electrical energy from acoustical and mechanical energy sources. In this talk, …
Dripping, Jetting, Drops and Wetting: the Magic of Microfluidics
13 Jun 2007 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): David A. Weitz
This talk will discuss some of the new opportunities That arises by precisely controlling fluid flow and mixing using microfluidic devices. I describe studies to elucidate mechanisms of drop …
SUGAR: the SPICE for MEMS
21 May 2007 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Jason Clark
In this seminar, I present some design, modeling, and simulation features of a computer aided engineering tool for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) called SUGAR. For experimental verification, I …
Solid-State Lighting: An Opportunity for Nanotechnologists to Address the Energy Challenge
25 Apr 2007 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Timothy D. Sands
More than one-fifth of the electrical power consumed in the U.S. is used for general illumination. Much of this energy is wasted to heat filaments in incandescent lamps, a century-old technology …
BNC Annual Research Symposium: Nanoelectronics and Semiconductor Devices
23 Apr 2007 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): David Janes
This presentation is part of a collection of presentations describing the projects, people, and capabilities enhanced by research performed in the Birck Center, and a look at plans for the upcoming …
High-Aspect-Ratio Micromachining of Titanium: Enabling New Functionality and Opportunity in Micromechanical Systems Through Greater Materials Selection
09 Apr 2007 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Masa Rao
Traditionally, materials selection has been limited in high-aspect-ratio micromechanical applications, due primarily to the predominance of microfabrication processes and infrastructure dedicated to …
Atomistic Alloy Disorder in Nanostructures
26 Feb 2007 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Gerhard Klimeck
Electronic structure and quantum transport simulations are typically performed in perfectly ordered semiconductor structures. Bands and modes are defined resulting in quantized conduction and …
Surprises on the nanoscale: Plasmonic waves that travel backward and spin birefringence without magnetic fields
08 Jan 2007 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Daniel Neuhauser
As nanonphotonics and nanoelectronics are pushed down towards the molecular scale, interesting effects emerge. We discuss how birefringence (different propagation of two polarizations) is …
RF MEMS: Passive Components and Architectures
02 Jan 2007 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Dimitrios Peroulis
This seminar is an introduction to the MEMS technology as it applies to RF and Microwave systems. Besides discussing several key RF MEMS components (switches, varactors, inductors), reconfigurable …
Design in the Nanometer Regime: Process Variation
28 Nov 2006 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Kaushik Roy
Scaling of technology over the last few decades has produced an exponential growth in computing power of integrated circuits and an unprecedented number of transistors integrated into a single. …
Design of CMOS Circuits in the Nanometer Regime: Leakage Tolerance
The scaling of technology has produced exponential growth in transistor development and computing power in the last few decades, but scaling still presents several challenges. These two lectures will …
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