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On June 30, 1948, AT&T Bell Labs unveiled the transitor to the world, creating a spark of explosive economic growth that would lead into the Information Age. William Shockley led a team of researchers, including Walter Brattain and John Bardeen, who invented the device. Like the existing triode vacuum tube device, the transistor could amplify signals and switch currents on and off, but the transistor was smaller, cheaper, and more efficient. Moreover, it could be integrated with millions of other transistors onto a single chip, creating the integrated circuit at the heart of modern computers.
Today, most transistors are being manufactured with a minimum feature size of 60-90nm--roughly 200-300 atoms. As the push continues to make devices even smaller, researchers must account for quantum mechanical effects in the device behavior. With fewer and fewer atoms, the positions of impurities and other irregularities begin to matter, and device reliability becomes an issue. So rather than shrink existing devices, many researchers are working on entirely new devices, based on carbon nanotubes, spintronics,
molecular conduction, and other nanotechnologies.
Learn more about transistors from the many resources on this site, listed below. Use our simulation tools to simulate performance characteristics for your own devices.
ECE 606 Lecture 17: Hall Effect, Diffusion
out of 5 stars
24 Feb 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad A. Alam
Outline:Measurement of mobilityHall Effect for determining carrier concentrationPhysics of diffusionConclusions
ECE 606 Lecture 16: Carrier Transport
23 Feb 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad A. Alam
ECE 606 Lecture 13: Recombination-Generation
16 Feb 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad A. Alam
Outline:Non-equilibrium systemsRecombination generation eventsSteady-state and transient responseDerivation of R-G formulaConclusion
ECE 606 Lecture 12: Equilibrium Concentrations
Outline:Carrier concentrationTemperature dependence of carrier concentrationMultiple doping, co-doping, and heavy-dopingConclusion
ECE 606 Lecture 11: Equilibrium Statistics
Outline:Law of mass-action & intrinsic concentration Statistics of donors and acceptor levelsConclusion
ECE 606 Lecture 10: Additional Information
Outline:Potential, field, and chargeE-k diagram vs. band-diagramBasic concepts of donors and acceptorsConclusion
ECE 606 Lecture 13a: Fermi Level Differences for Metals and Semiconductors
Short chalkboard lecture on Fermi level and band diagram differences for metals and semiconductors.
ECE 606 Lecture 9: Fermi-Dirac Statistics
04 Feb 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad A. Alam
Outline:Rules of filling electronic statesDerivation of Fermi-Dirac Statistics: three techniquesIntrinsic carrier concentrationConclusion
ECE 606 Lecture 8: Density of States
Outline:Calculation of density of statesDensity of states for specific materialsCharacterization of Effective MassConclusions
ECE 606 Lecture 7: Energy Bands in Real Crystals
Outline:E-k diagram/constant energy surfaces in 3D solidsCharacterization of E-k diagram: BandgapCharacterization of E-k diagram: Effective MassConclusions
ECE 606 Lecture 5: Energy Bands
Outline:Schrodinger equation in periodic U(x)Bloch theoremBand structureProperties of electronic bandsConclusions
ECE 606 Lecture 6: Energy Bands (continued)
Outline:Properties of electronic bandsE-k diagram and constant energy surfacesConclusions
ECE 606 Lecture 4: Solution of Schrodinger Equation
Outline:Time-independent Schrodinger EquationAnalytical solution of toy problemsBound vs. tunneling statesConclusionsAdditional Notes: Numerical solution of Schrodinger Equation
ECE 606 Lecture 3: Elements of Quantum Mechanics
28 Jan 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad A. Alam
Outline:Why do we need quantum physicsQuantum conceptsFormulation of quantum mechanicsConclusions
ECE 606 Lecture 2: Geometry of Periodic Crystals
Outline:Volume & surface issues for BCC, FCC, Cubic latticesImportant material systemsMiller indices ConclusionsHelpful software tool: Crystal Viewer in the ABACUS tool suite.
ECE 606 Lecture 1: Introduction
Outline:Course information Current flow in semiconductors Types of material systems Classification of crystals
Illinois ECE 440 Solid State Electronic Devices, Lecture 7: Temperature Dependence of Carrier Concentrations
30 Dec 2008 | | Contributor(s):: Eric Pop
Illinois ECE 440 Solid State Electronic Devices, Lecture 6: Doping, Fermi Level, Density of States
04 Dec 2008 | | Contributor(s):: Eric Pop, Umair Irfan
Illinois ECE 440 Solid State Electronic Devices, Lecture 1 Introduction
26 Nov 2008 | | Contributor(s):: Eric Pop
Introduction to Solid State Electronic Devices
ECE 606 Lecture 32: MOS Electrostatics I
19 Nov 2008 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad A. Alam