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On June 30, 1948, AT&T Bell Labs unveiled the transitor to the world, creating a spark of explosive economic growth that would lead into the Information Age. William Shockley led a team of researchers, including Walter Brattain and John Bardeen, who invented the device. Like the existing triode vacuum tube device, the transistor could amplify signals and switch currents on and off, but the transistor was smaller, cheaper, and more efficient. Moreover, it could be integrated with millions of other transistors onto a single chip, creating the integrated circuit at the heart of modern computers.
Today, most transistors are being manufactured with a minimum feature size of 60-90nm--roughly 200-300 atoms. As the push continues to make devices even smaller, researchers must account for quantum mechanical effects in the device behavior. With fewer and fewer atoms, the positions of impurities and other irregularities begin to matter, and device reliability becomes an issue. So rather than shrink existing devices, many researchers are working on entirely new devices, based on carbon nanotubes, spintronics,
molecular conduction, and other nanotechnologies.
Learn more about transistors from the many resources on this site, listed below. Use our simulation tools to simulate performance characteristics for your own devices.
2011 NCN@Purdue Summer School: Electronics from the Bottom Up
20 Jul 2011 |
click on image for larger versionAlumni Discussion Group: LinkedIn
The History of Semiconductor Heterostructures Research: From Early Double Heterostructure Concept to Modern Quantum Dot Structures
11 Jul 2011 | | Contributor(s):: Zhores I. Alferov
It would be very difficult today to imagine solid-state physics without semiconductor heterostructures. Semiconductor heterostructures and especially double heterostructures, including quantum wells, quantum wires and quantum dots, currently comprise the object of investigation of two thirds of...
Quantitative Modeling and Simulation of Quantum Dots
18 Apr 2011 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad Usman
Quantum dots grown by self-assembly process are typically constructed by 50,000 to 5,000,000 structural atoms which confine a small, countable number of extra electrons or holes in a space that is comparable in size to the electron wavelength. Under such conditions quantum dots can be...
The Elusive Spin Transistor
11 Apr 2011 | | Contributor(s):: Supriyo Datta
This presentation is a short introductory tutorial on spin-transistors.
Control of Spin Precession in a Datta-Das Transistor Structure
11 Apr 2011 | | Contributor(s):: Hyun Cheol Koo
Transistors Switch onto Spin Using the spin of an electron in addition to, or instead of, the charge properties is believed to have many benefits in terms of speed, power-cost, and integration density over conventional electronic circuits. At the heart of the field of spintronics has been a...
[Illinois] ECE 398: Electronic and Photonic Devices
07 Feb 2011 | | Contributor(s):: Kent D Choquette
Fall Semester, 2010A first course on active and passive photonic devices and applications. Optical processes in dielectric and semiconductor materials discussed including waveguide propagation, confinement, electrical junctions, and emission/absorption. Active and passive photonic components...
Keithley 4200-SCS Lecture 12: Ultra-fast I-V for Pulsed and Transient Characterization
24 Jan 2011 | | Contributor(s):: Lee Stauffer
Keithley 4200-SCS Lecture 01: Introduction - System Overview - DC I-V Source Measurement
20 Jan 2011 | | Contributor(s):: Lee Stauffer
Introduction to Device Characterization -System Overview: System Architecture, Hardware Features and Software Features -Precision DC I-V Source-Measure Features and Concepts.
Keithley 4200-SCS Lecture 02: Basics of Keithley Interactive Test Environment (KITE)
Keithley 4200-SCS Lecture 03: More KITE Setup and Features
Keithley 4200-SCS Lecture 04: Speed and Timing Considerations
Keithley 4200-SCS Lecture 05: Low Current and High Resistance Measurements
Keithley 4200-SCS Lecture 06: Troubleshooting
Keithley 4200-SCS: KITE Demo
Keithley 4200-SCS Lecture 07: KCON Utility Overview
Keithley 4200-SCS Lecture 08: 4210 CVU Instrument Module - Overview
Theory of Operation and Measurement Overview
Keithley 4200-SCS Lecture 09: 4210 CVU Instrument Module - Measurement Techniques I
Measurement Techniques and Optimization
Keithley 4200-SCS Lecture 10: 4210 CVU Instrument Module - Measurement Techniques II
Keithley 4200-SCS Lecture 11: 4210 CVU Instrument Module - Troubleshooting
Device Characterization with the Keithley 4200-SCS
This training session is based on the Keithley 4200-SCS Semiconductor Characterization System. It is intended for beginning to intermediate users. It covers basic concepts, both of the instrument, as well as general measurement considerations.