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On June 30, 1948, AT&T Bell Labs unveiled the transitor to the world, creating a spark of explosive economic growth that would lead into the Information Age. William Shockley led a team of researchers, including Walter Brattain and John Bardeen, who invented the device. Like the existing triode vacuum tube device, the transistor could amplify signals and switch currents on and off, but the transistor was smaller, cheaper, and more efficient. Moreover, it could be integrated with millions of other transistors onto a single chip, creating the integrated circuit at the heart of modern computers.
Today, most transistors are being manufactured with a minimum feature size of 60-90nm--roughly 200-300 atoms. As the push continues to make devices even smaller, researchers must account for quantum mechanical effects in the device behavior. With fewer and fewer atoms, the positions of impurities and other irregularities begin to matter, and device reliability becomes an issue. So rather than shrink existing devices, many researchers are working on entirely new devices, based on carbon nanotubes, spintronics,
molecular conduction, and other nanotechnologies.
Learn more about transistors from the many resources on this site, listed below. Use our simulation tools to simulate performance characteristics for your own devices.
[Illinois] New directions in III-V MBE: from materials to devices
13 Apr 2017 | Contributor(s):: Minjoo Larry Lee
9/8/2016MNTL Industry Affiliates Program
[Illinois] Nano-scale Electronic and Optoelectronic Devices Based on Two-dimensional Materials
13 Apr 2017 | Contributor(s):: Wenjuan Zhu
[Illinois] Piezoelectric MEMS Devices for Future RF Front Ends
13 Apr 2017 | Contributor(s):: Songbin Gong
NEMO5, a Parallel, Multiscale, Multiphysics Nanoelectronics Modeling Tool
: From Basic Physics to Real Devices and to Global Impact on nanoHUB.org
10 Nov 2016 | | Contributor(s):: Gerhard Klimeck
The Nanoelectronic Modeling tool suite NEMO5 is aimed to comprehend the critical multi-scale, multi-physics phenomena and deliver results to engineers, scientists, and students through efficient computational approaches. NEMO5’s general software framework easily includes any kind of...
NEMO5 and 2D Materials: Tuning Bandstructures, Wave Functions and Electrostatic Screening
19 Oct 2016 | | Contributor(s):: Tillmann Christoph Kubis
In this talk, I will briefly discuss the MLWF approach and compare it to DFT and atomistic tight binding. Initial results using the MLWF approach for 2D material based devices will be discussed and compared to experiments. These results unveil systematic band structure changes as functions of...
Auger Generation as an Intrinsic Limit to Tunneling Field-Effect Transistor Performance
22 Sep 2016 | | Contributor(s):: Jamie Teherani
Many in the microelectronics field view tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) as society’s best hope for achieving a > 10× power reduction for electronic devices; however, despite a decade of considerable worldwide research, experimental TFET results have significantly...
NEMO5, a Parallel, Multiscale, Multiphysics Nanoelectronics Modeling Tool
19 Sep 2016 | | Contributor(s):: Gerhard Klimeck
Multi-Scale Modeling of Self-Heating Effects in Nano-Devices
21 Apr 2016 | | Contributor(s):: Suleman Sami Qazi, Akash Anil Laturia, Robin Louis Daugherty, Katerina Raleva, Dragica Vasileska
IWCE 2015 presentation. This paper discusses a multi-scale device modeling scheme for analyzing self-heating effects in nanoscale silicon devices. A 2D/3D particle-based device simulator is self-consistently coupled to an energy balance solver for the acoustic and optical phonon bath. This...
Electronic and Vibrational Properties of 2D Materials from Monolayer to Bulk: Opportunity Unlimited
21 Apr 2016 | | Contributor(s):: Mahesh R Neupane
IWCE 2015 invited presentation. The placement of two dimensional (2D) materials such as hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) at the forefront of materials and device research was pioneered by the discovery of graphene, an atomically thin 2D allotrope of...
nanoHUB - Educational Tour de Force
14 Jan 2016 | | Contributor(s):: David K. Ferry
nanoHUB was originally created to bring together the computational electronics world as a place where programs and results could be efficiently shared. For that purpose, it has matured and grown to where it is a major force in the area. But, it can also be a great tool for education, an...
Green Light on Germanium
02 Nov 2015 | | Contributor(s):: peide ye
This talk will review recent progress as well as challenges on Ge research for future logic applications with emphasis on the breakthrough work at Purdue University on Ge nFET which leads to the demonstration of the world first Ge CMOS circuits on Si substrates. Ge device technology includes...
[Illinois] Foundations of Nanoscience: Self-Assembled Architectures and Devices
23 Oct 2015 | | Contributor(s):: Alan Rowan, Erik Luijten, Mark Brongersma, Graham Johnson, Ayusman Sen, Michelle Khine, Erkang Wang, Michael Famulok, Milan Stojanovic
This is a yearly conference on foundations of nanoscience, maintaining the highest scientific standards and providing many opportunities for discussion and informal exchange of information and questions. Self-assembly is the central theme of the conference. Topics include experimental and...
[Illinois] Device Applications of Metafilms and Metasurfaces
23 Oct 2015 | | Contributor(s):: Mark Brongersma
Long term Aging of Autonomous STructures (LAAST) Seminar Series
07 Apr 2015 | | Contributor(s):: Ali Shakouri
The Long term Aging of Autonomous STructures (LAAST) seminar series focuses on reliability and aging of devices for energy conversion, information processing or sensing.
[Illinois] Atomic Engineering of III-V Semiconductor for Quantum Devices, from Deep UV (200 nm) to THZ (300 microns)
03 Mar 2015 | | Contributor(s):: Manijeh Razeghi
Nature offers us different kinds of atoms. But it takes human intelligence to put different atoms together in an elegant way in order to realize manmade structures that is lacking in nature. This is especially true in III-V semiconductor material systems. Guided by highly accurate atomic band...
[Illinois] BioEngineering Seminar Series: Implantable Networks of Wireless Nanoelectronic Devices
04 Feb 2014 | | Contributor(s):: Pedro Irazoqui
Tunnel FETs - Device Physics and Realizations
10 Jul 2013 | | Contributor(s):: Joachim Knoch
Here, the operating principles of TFETs will be discussed in detail and experimental realizations as well as simulation results will be presented. In particular, the role of the injecting source contact will be elaborated on.
Electron Phonon Interaction in Carbon Nanotube Devices
28 Jun 2013 | | Contributor(s):: Sayed Hasan
With the end of silicon technology scaling in sight, there has been a lot of interest in alternate novel channel materials and device geometry. Carbon nanotubes, the ultimate one-dimensional (1D) wire, is one such possibility. Since the report of the first CNT transistors, lots has been learned...
Modeling Quantum Transport in Nanoscale Transistors
28 Jun 2013 | | Contributor(s):: Ramesh Venugopal
As critical transistor dimensions scale below the 100 nm (nanoscale) regime, quantum mechanical effects begin to manifest themselves and affect important device performance metrics. Therefore, simulation tools which can be applied to design nanoscale transistors in the future, require new theory...
Introduction to Compact Models and Circuit Simulation
19 Jun 2013 | | Contributor(s):: Tianshi Wang, Jaijeet Roychowdhury
The presentation is a gentle introduction to compact models, basic circuit simulation concepts, and flows for developing compact models. The roadmap for the NEEDS-SPICE platform, being developed to ease the process of developing simulation-ready compact models for novel nanodevices, is briefly...