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On June 30, 1948, AT&T Bell Labs unveiled the transitor to the world, creating a spark of explosive economic growth that would lead into the Information Age. William Shockley led a team of researchers, including Walter Brattain and John Bardeen, who invented the device. Like the existing triode vacuum tube device, the transistor could amplify signals and switch currents on and off, but the transistor was smaller, cheaper, and more efficient. Moreover, it could be integrated with millions of other transistors onto a single chip, creating the integrated circuit at the heart of modern computers.
Today, most transistors are being manufactured with a minimum feature size of 60-90nm--roughly 200-300 atoms. As the push continues to make devices even smaller, researchers must account for quantum mechanical effects in the device behavior. With fewer and fewer atoms, the positions of impurities and other irregularities begin to matter, and device reliability becomes an issue. So rather than shrink existing devices, many researchers are working on entirely new devices, based on carbon nanotubes, spintronics,
molecular conduction, and other nanotechnologies.
Learn more about transistors from the many resources on this site, listed below. Use our simulation tools to simulate performance characteristics for your own devices.
Long term Aging of Autonomous STructures (LAAST) Seminar Series
07 Apr 2015 | Series | Contributor(s): Ali Shakouri
The Long term Aging of Autonomous STructures (LAAST) seminar series focuses on reliability and aging of devices for energy conversion, information processing or sensing.
From Semi-Classical to Quantum Transport Modeling
10 Aug 2009 | Series | Contributor(s): Dragica Vasileska
This set of powerpoint slides series provides insight on what are the tools available for modeling devices that behave either classically or quantum-mechanically. An in-depth description is...
PRISM Seminar Series
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05 Nov 2008 | Series | Contributor(s): Jayathi Murthy, Alejandro Strachan
Welcome to the PRISM Seminar Series.
PRIMS: NNSA Center for Prediction of Reliability, Integrity and Survivability of Microsystems, is a university center funded by the Department of Energy's...
NCN Nano-Devices for Medicine and Biology: Tutorials
19 Jun 2008 | Series
From among the many tutorial lectures available on the nanoHUB, we list a few that convey new approaches to the development of new kinds of devices for applications in medicine and biology.
NCN Nano-Devices for Medicine and Biology: Research Seminars
Many research seminars are available on the nanoHUB. Listed below are a few that discuss new device possiblities.
NCN Nano-Devices for Medicine and Biology: Simulation Tools for Education
Many simulation tools are available on the nanoHUB. The tools have been well-tested and here include supporting materials so that they can be effectively used for education or intelligently used...
NCN Nano-Devices for Medicine and Biology: Simulation Tools for Research
Many simulation tools are available on the nanoHUB. The tools have been well-tested and here include supporting materials so that they can be effectively used for research. The research tools...