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On June 30, 1948, AT&T Bell Labs unveiled the transitor to the world, creating a spark of explosive economic growth that would lead into the Information Age. William Shockley led a team of researchers, including Walter Brattain and John Bardeen, who invented the device. Like the existing triode vacuum tube device, the transistor could amplify signals and switch currents on and off, but the transistor was smaller, cheaper, and more efficient. Moreover, it could be integrated with millions of other transistors onto a single chip, creating the integrated circuit at the heart of modern computers.
Today, most transistors are being manufactured with a minimum feature size of 60-90nm--roughly 200-300 atoms. As the push continues to make devices even smaller, researchers must account for quantum mechanical effects in the device behavior. With fewer and fewer atoms, the positions of impurities and other irregularities begin to matter, and device reliability becomes an issue. So rather than shrink existing devices, many researchers are working on entirely new devices, based on carbon nanotubes, spintronics,
molecular conduction, and other nanotechnologies.
Learn more about transistors from the many resources on this site, listed below. Use our simulation tools to simulate performance characteristics for your own devices.
2009 NCN@Purdue Summer School: Electronics from the Bottom Up
22 Sep 2009 | Workshops | Contributor(s): Supriyo Datta, Mark Lundstrom, Muhammad A. Alam, Joerg Appenzeller
The school will consist of two lectures in the morning on the Nanostructured Electronic Devices: Percolation and Reliability and an afternoon lecture on Graphene Physics and Devices. A hands on...
2011 NCN@Purdue Summer School: Electronics from the Bottom Up
20 Jul 2011 | Workshops
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Alumni Discussion Group: LinkedIn
NEEDS Workshop on Compact Modeling
19 Jun 2013 | Workshops | Contributor(s): Mark Lundstrom, Jaijeet Roychowdhury
Advanced in research promise a new era of electronics – one that harnesses the capabilities of
[Illinois] Foundations of Nanoscience: Self-Assembled Architectures and Devices
23 Oct 2015 | Workshops | Contributor(s): Alan Rowan, Erik Luijten, Mark Brongersma, Graham Johnson, Ayusman Sen, Michelle Khine, Erkang Wang, Michael Famulok, Milan Stojanovic
This is a yearly conference on foundations of nanoscience, maintaining the highest scientific standards and providing many opportunities for discussion and informal exchange of information and...