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On June 30, 1948, AT&T Bell Labs unveiled the transitor to the world, creating a spark of explosive economic growth that would lead into the Information Age. William Shockley led a team of researchers, including Walter Brattain and John Bardeen, who invented the device. Like the existing triode vacuum tube device, the transistor could amplify signals and switch currents on and off, but the transistor was smaller, cheaper, and more efficient. Moreover, it could be integrated with millions of other transistors onto a single chip, creating the integrated circuit at the heart of modern computers.
Today, most transistors are being manufactured with a minimum feature size of 60-90nm--roughly 200-300 atoms. As the push continues to make devices even smaller, researchers must account for quantum mechanical effects in the device behavior. With fewer and fewer atoms, the positions of impurities and other irregularities begin to matter, and device reliability becomes an issue. So rather than shrink existing devices, many researchers are working on entirely new devices, based on carbon nanotubes, spintronics,
molecular conduction, and other nanotechnologies.
Learn more about transistors from the many resources on this site, listed below. Use our simulation tools to simulate performance characteristics for your own devices.
Illinois ECE 440 Solid State Electronic Devices, Lecture 35: Short Channel MOSFET and Non-Ideal Behavior
02 Mar 2010 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Eric Pop
Illinois ECE 440 Solid State Electronic Devices, Lecture 36: MOSFET Scaling Limits
Illinois ECE 440 Solid State Electronic Devices, Lecture 37: MOSFET Analog Amplifier and Digital Inverter
Illinois ABE 446: Biological Nanoengineering
11 Feb 2010 | Courses | Contributor(s): Kaustubh Bhalerao
Nanodevice design through organization of functional biological components; bio-molecular function and bioconjugation techniques in nanotechnology; modulation of biological systems using...
Lecture 10: Interface Damage & Negative Bias Temperature Instability
02 Feb 2010 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Muhammad A. Alam
NBTI interpreted by R-D model
The act of measurement and observed quantity
NBTI vs. Light-induced Degradation
Possibility of Degradation-free...
Illinois ECE 440: Diffusion and Energy Band Diagram Homework
28 Jan 2010 | Teaching Materials | Contributor(s): Mohamed Mohamed
This homework covers Diffusion of Carriers, Built-in Fields and Metal semiconductor junctions.
Illinois ECE 440: MOS Capacitor Homework
This homework covers Threshold Voltage, MOS Band Diagram, and MOS Capacitance-Voltage Analysis.
Illinois ECE 440: Carrier Generation and Recombination and photo-conductivity Homework
This homework covers Optical Absorption, Excess Carrier Concentration, Steady State Carrier Generation, and Quasi-Fermi Levels.
Illinois ECE 440: Charge Carrier in Bulk Semiconductors Homework
This homework covers the effects of doping on carrier concentration in bulk silicon.
Illinois ECE 440: Introduction to Carrier Drift and Mobility Homework
This homework covers Carrier Transport in Semiconductors subjected to an electric field.
Illinois ECE 440: Introduction to Crystal Properties Homework
This homework Assignment covers basic introduction to Material Properties and Crystal Structures.
Illinois ECE 440: MOS Field-Effect Transistor Homework
This homework covers Output Characteristics and Mobility Model of MOSFETs.
Illinois ECE 440: Photodiodes Homework
This homework covers Current and Voltage in an Illuminated Junction, Solar Cells, and PN Junction Simulation.
Illinois ECE 440: PN Junction Homework
This homework covers P-N junctions in equilibrium, contact potential, and Space Charge at a Junction.
Illinois ECE 440: Solid State Electronic Devices Homework Assignments (Fall 2009)
28 Jan 2010 | Courses | Contributor(s): Mohamed Mohamed
Homework assignments for the Fall 2009 teaching of Illinois ECE 440: Solid State Electronic Devices.
Nanoelectronic Modeling: From Quantum Mechanics and Atoms to Realistic Devices
25 Jan 2010 | Courses | Contributor(s): Gerhard Klimeck
The goal of this series of lectures is to explain the critical concepts in the understanding of the state-of-the-art modeling of nanoelectronic devices such as resonant tunneling diodes, quantum...
Simulation of laser devices with ActiveMedia nanophotonics tool (ACME NPDS)
This tutorial is intended to demonstrate how to build a device and analyze its optical properties and lasing behavior.
Illinois ME 498 Introduction of Nano Science and Technology, Lecture 25: Nanomaterials and Devices for Solar Energy
29 Dec 2009 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Nick Fang, Omar N Sobh
Nanomaterials and Devices for Solar Energy
Approaches: Breathing Membrane
Fuel Cell Water Management
Illinois ME 498 Introduction of Nano Science and Technology, Lecture 23: Nanomaterials and Devices for Energy Conversion I
28 Dec 2009 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Nick Fang, Omar N Sobh
Nanomaterials and Devices for Energy Conversion
Overview of Actuators at Nanoscale
Surface Acoustic Wave Motors
Illinois ME 498 Introduction of Nano Science and Technology, Lecture 24: Nanomaterials and Devices for Energy Conversion II
Nanomaterials and Devices for Energy Conversion II
Electrochemistry - Energy Storage
Non-linear Diffusion Effect in Electrochemistry
Architecture of 3-D batteries