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On June 30, 1948, AT&T Bell Labs unveiled the transitor to the world, creating a spark of explosive economic growth that would lead into the Information Age. William Shockley led a team of researchers, including Walter Brattain and John Bardeen, who invented the device. Like the existing triode vacuum tube device, the transistor could amplify signals and switch currents on and off, but the transistor was smaller, cheaper, and more efficient. Moreover, it could be integrated with millions of other transistors onto a single chip, creating the integrated circuit at the heart of modern computers.
Today, most transistors are being manufactured with a minimum feature size of 60-90nm--roughly 200-300 atoms. As the push continues to make devices even smaller, researchers must account for quantum mechanical effects in the device behavior. With fewer and fewer atoms, the positions of impurities and other irregularities begin to matter, and device reliability becomes an issue. So rather than shrink existing devices, many researchers are working on entirely new devices, based on carbon nanotubes, spintronics,
molecular conduction, and other nanotechnologies.
Learn more about transistors from the many resources on this site, listed below. Use our simulation tools to simulate performance characteristics for your own devices.
From Semi-Classical to Quantum Transport Modeling: Particle-Based Device Simulations
10 Aug 2009 | Teaching Materials | Contributor(s): Dragica Vasileska
This set of powerpoint slides series provides insight on what are the tools available for modeling devices that behave either classically or quantum-mechanically. An in-depth description is...
From Semi-Classical to Quantum Transport Modeling: Quantum Corrections to Semiclassical Approaches
From Semi-Classical to Quantum Transport Modeling: Quantum Transport - Recursive Green's function method, CBR approach and Atomistic
Tutorial for PADRE Based Simulation Tools
10 Aug 2009 | Teaching Materials | Contributor(s): Dragica Vasileska, Gerhard Klimeck
This tutorial is intended for first time and medium level users of PADRE-based simulation modules installed on the nanohub. It gives clear overview on the capabilities of each tool with emphasis...
Illinois ECE 440 Solid State Electronic Devices, Lecture 5, Part 2 : Doping, Carrier Concentrations
03 Aug 2009 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Eric Pop, Omar Sobh
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ECE 440: Solid State Electronic Devices
Illinois ECE 440 Solid State Electronic Devices, Lecture 5: Intrinsic Material, Doping, Carrier Concentrations
Jul 20 2009
2009 NCN@Purdue Summer School: Electronics from the Bottom Up
MOSCAP: Theoretical Exercise - High Frequency CV Curves
07 Jul 2009 | Teaching Materials | Contributor(s): Dragica Vasileska
One is required to sketch the high frequency CV curves for different MOS Capacitors configurations.
BJT Lab: h-Parameters Calculation Exercise
07 Jul 2009 | Teaching Materials | Contributor(s): Dragica Vasileska, Gerhard Klimeck
In this exercise students are required to obtain the appropriate input and output parameters to extract the small signal h-parameters in common-base configuration. Afterwards they need to derive...
MOSFet Demonstration: MOSFET Device Simulation and Analysis
11 Jun 2009 | Animations | Contributor(s): Gerhard Klimeck, Benjamin P Haley
This video shows the simulation and analysis of a MOSFET device using the MOSFet tool. Several powerful analytic features of this tool are demonstrated.
PN Junction Lab Demonstration: Asymmetric PN Junctions
This video shows the simulation and analysis of a several PN junctions using PN Junction Lab, which is powered by PADRE. Several powerful analytic features of this tool are demonstrated.
OMEN Nanowire Demonstration: Nanowire Simulation and Analysis
This video shows the simulation and analysis of a nanowire using OMEN Nanowire. Several powerful analytic features of this tool are demonstrated.
Resonant Tunneling Diode Simulation with NEGF: First-Time User Guide
01 Jun 2009 | Teaching Materials | Contributor(s): Samarth Agarwal, Gerhard Klimeck
This first-time user guide for Resonant Tunneling Diode Simulation with NEGF provides some fundamental concepts regarding RTDs along with details on how device geometry and simulation parameters...
Piece-Wise Constant Potential Barriers Tool: First-Time User Guide
This supporting document for the Piece-Wise Constant Potential Barriers Tool serves as a first-time user guide. Some basic ideas about quantum mechanical tunneling are introduced in addition to...
ECE 606 Lecture 40: Looking Back and Looking Forward
30 Apr 2009 | Online Presentations
ECE 606 Lecture 36: MOSFET I-V Characteristics II
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28 Apr 2009 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Muhammad A. Alam
ECE 606 Lecture 37a: Nonideal Effects in MOSFET I
ECE 606 Lecture 37b: Nonideal Effects in MOSFET II
ECE 606 Lecture 39: Reliability of MOSFET
ECE 606 Lecture 33: MOS Electrostatics II
16 Apr 2009 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Muhammad A. Alam