Tags: devices

Description

On June 30, 1948, AT&T Bell Labs unveiled the transitor to the world, creating a spark of explosive economic growth that would lead into the Information Age. William Shockley led a team of researchers, including Walter Brattain and John Bardeen, who invented the device. Like the existing triode vacuum tube device, the transistor could amplify signals and switch currents on and off, but the transistor was smaller, cheaper, and more efficient. Moreover, it could be integrated with millions of other transistors onto a single chip, creating the integrated circuit at the heart of modern computers.

Today, most transistors are being manufactured with a minimum feature size of 60-90nm--roughly 200-300 atoms. As the push continues to make devices even smaller, researchers must account for quantum mechanical effects in the device behavior. With fewer and fewer atoms, the positions of impurities and other irregularities begin to matter, and device reliability becomes an issue. So rather than shrink existing devices, many researchers are working on entirely new devices, based on carbon nanotubes, spintronics, molecular conduction, and other nanotechnologies.

Learn more about transistors from the many resources on this site, listed below. Use our simulation tools to simulate performance characteristics for your own devices.

All Categories (181-200 of 328)

  1. ECE 606 Lecture 25: Schottky Diode I

    24 Mar 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad A. Alam

  2. ECE 606 Lecture 18: Continuity Equations

    24 Mar 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad A. Alam

    OutlineContinuity EquationExample problems Conclusion

  3. ECE 606 Lecture 24: Large Signal Response

    13 Mar 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad A. Alam

  4. ECE 606 Lecture 23: AC Response

    13 Mar 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad A. Alam

  5. ECE 606 Lecture 20: Electrostatics of P-N Junction Diodes

    11 Mar 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad A. Alam

  6. ECE 606 Lecture 21: P-N Diode I-V Characteristics

    11 Mar 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad A. Alam

  7. ECE 606 Lecture 22: Non-ideal Effects

    11 Mar 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad A. Alam

  8. ECE 606 Lecture 17: Hall Effect, Diffusion

    24 Feb 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad A. Alam

    Outline:Measurement of mobilityHall Effect for determining carrier concentrationPhysics of diffusionConclusions

  9. ECE 606 Lecture 16: Carrier Transport

    23 Feb 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad A. Alam

  10. ECE 606 Lecture 13: Recombination-Generation

    16 Feb 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad A. Alam

    Outline:Non-equilibrium systemsRecombination generation eventsSteady-state and transient responseDerivation of R-G formulaConclusion

  11. ECE 606 Lecture 12: Equilibrium Concentrations

    16 Feb 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad A. Alam

    Outline:Carrier concentrationTemperature dependence of carrier concentrationMultiple doping, co-doping, and heavy-dopingConclusion

  12. ECE 606 Lecture 11: Equilibrium Statistics

    16 Feb 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad A. Alam

    Outline:Law of mass-action & intrinsic concentration Statistics of donors and acceptor levelsConclusion

  13. ECE 606 Lecture 10: Additional Information

    16 Feb 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad A. Alam

    Outline:Potential, field, and chargeE-k diagram vs. band-diagramBasic concepts of donors and acceptorsConclusion

  14. ECE 606 Lecture 13a: Fermi Level Differences for Metals and Semiconductors

    16 Feb 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad A. Alam

    Short chalkboard lecture on Fermi level and band diagram differences for metals and semiconductors.

  15. ECE 606 Lecture 9: Fermi-Dirac Statistics

    04 Feb 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad A. Alam

    Outline:Rules of filling electronic statesDerivation of Fermi-Dirac Statistics: three techniquesIntrinsic carrier concentrationConclusion

  16. ECE 606 Lecture 8: Density of States

    04 Feb 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad A. Alam

    Outline:Calculation of density of statesDensity of states for specific materialsCharacterization of Effective MassConclusions

  17. ECE 606 Lecture 7: Energy Bands in Real Crystals

    04 Feb 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad A. Alam

    Outline:E-k diagram/constant energy surfaces in 3D solidsCharacterization of E-k diagram: BandgapCharacterization of E-k diagram: Effective MassConclusions

  18. ECE 606 Lecture 5: Energy Bands

    04 Feb 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad A. Alam

    Outline:Schrodinger equation in periodic U(x)Bloch theoremBand structureProperties of electronic bandsConclusions

  19. ECE 606 Lecture 6: Energy Bands (continued)

    04 Feb 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad A. Alam

    Outline:Properties of electronic bandsE-k diagram and constant energy surfacesConclusions

  20. ECE 606 Lecture 4: Solution of Schrodinger Equation

    04 Feb 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad A. Alam

    Outline:Time-independent Schrodinger EquationAnalytical solution of toy problemsBound vs. tunneling statesConclusionsAdditional Notes: Numerical solution of Schrodinger Equation