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On June 30, 1948, AT&T Bell Labs unveiled the transitor to the world, creating a spark of explosive economic growth that would lead into the Information Age. William Shockley led a team of researchers, including Walter Brattain and John Bardeen, who invented the device. Like the existing triode vacuum tube device, the transistor could amplify signals and switch currents on and off, but the transistor was smaller, cheaper, and more efficient. Moreover, it could be integrated with millions of other transistors onto a single chip, creating the integrated circuit at the heart of modern computers.
Today, most transistors are being manufactured with a minimum feature size of 60-90nm--roughly 200-300 atoms. As the push continues to make devices even smaller, researchers must account for quantum mechanical effects in the device behavior. With fewer and fewer atoms, the positions of impurities and other irregularities begin to matter, and device reliability becomes an issue. So rather than shrink existing devices, many researchers are working on entirely new devices, based on carbon nanotubes, spintronics,
molecular conduction, and other nanotechnologies.
Learn more about transistors from the many resources on this site, listed below. Use our simulation tools to simulate performance characteristics for your own devices.
Uniform Methodology of Benchmarking Beyond-CMOS Devices
31 Oct 2012 | | Contributor(s):: Dmitri Nikonov
Multiple logic devices are presently under study within the Nanoelectronic Research Initiative (NRI) to carry the development of integrated circuits beyond the CMOS roadmap. Structure and operational principles of these devices are described.Theories used for benchmarking these devices are...
ECE 606 Lecture 17: Shottky Diode
29 Oct 2012 | | Contributor(s):: Gerhard Klimeck
ECE 606 Lecture 16: p-n Diode AC Response
24 Oct 2012 | | Contributor(s):: Gerhard Klimeck
ECE 606 Lecture 15: p-n Diode Characteristics
17 Oct 2012 | | Contributor(s):: Gerhard Klimeck
ECE 606 Lecture 13: Solutions of the Continuity Equations - Analytical & Numerical
12 Oct 2012 | | Contributor(s):: Gerhard Klimeck
ECE 606 Solid State Devices
10 Oct 2012 | | Contributor(s):: Gerhard Klimeck
ECE 606 Lecture 11: Interface States Recombination/Carrier Transport
ECE 606 Lecture 12: High Field, Mobility, Hall Effect, Diffusion
ECE 606 Lecture 14: p-n Junctions
04 Oct 2012 | | Contributor(s):: Gerhard Klimeck
ECE 606 Lecture 10: Shockley, Reed, Hall and other Recombinations
30 Sep 2012 | | Contributor(s):: Gerhard Klimeck
ECE 606 Lecture 5: Density of States
28 Sep 2012 | | Contributor(s):: Gerhard Klimeck
ECE 606 Lecture 6: Bandgap, Mass Measurements and Fermi-Dirac Statistics
ECE 606 Lecture 7: Intrinsic semiconductors and Concepts of Doping
ECE 606 Lecture 8: Temperature Dependent Carrier Density Concepts of Recombination
ECE 606 Lecture 9: Recombination Process and Rates
ECE 606 Lecture 4: Periodic Potentials Solutions of Schrödinger's Equation
14 Sep 2012 | | Contributor(s):: Gerhard Klimeck
ECE 606 Lecture 2: Quantum Mechanics
ECE 606 Lecture 3: Emergence of Bandstructure
31 Aug 2012 | | Contributor(s):: Gerhard Klimeck
Table of Contents:00:00ECE606: Solid State Devices Lecture 300:24Motivation01:17Time-independent Schrodinger Equation02:22Time-independent Schrodinger Equation04:23A Simple Differential Equation05:29Presentation Outline05:46Full Problem Difficult: Toy Problems First06:07Case 1: Solution for...
ECE 606 Lecture 1: Introduction/Crystal Classification
30 Aug 2012 | | Contributor(s):: Gerhard Klimeck
Nanophotonics with Metamaterials
27 Aug 2012 | | Contributor(s):: Vladimir M. Shalaev
One of the most unique properties of light is that it can package information into a signal of zero mass and propagate it at the ultimate speed. It is, however, a daunting challenge to bring photonic devices to the nanometer scale because of the fundamental diffraction limit. Metamaterials can...