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On June 30, 1948, AT&T Bell Labs unveiled the transitor to the world, creating a spark of explosive economic growth that would lead into the Information Age. William Shockley led a team of researchers, including Walter Brattain and John Bardeen, who invented the device. Like the existing triode vacuum tube device, the transistor could amplify signals and switch currents on and off, but the transistor was smaller, cheaper, and more efficient. Moreover, it could be integrated with millions of other transistors onto a single chip, creating the integrated circuit at the heart of modern computers.
Today, most transistors are being manufactured with a minimum feature size of 60-90nm--roughly 200-300 atoms. As the push continues to make devices even smaller, researchers must account for quantum mechanical effects in the device behavior. With fewer and fewer atoms, the positions of impurities and other irregularities begin to matter, and device reliability becomes an issue. So rather than shrink existing devices, many researchers are working on entirely new devices, based on carbon nanotubes, spintronics,
molecular conduction, and other nanotechnologies.
Learn more about transistors from the many resources on this site, listed below. Use our simulation tools to simulate performance characteristics for your own devices.
Keithley 4200-SCS Lecture 09: 4210 CVU Instrument Module - Measurement Techniques I
20 Jan 2011 | | Contributor(s):: Lee Stauffer
Measurement Techniques and Optimization
Keithley 4200-SCS Lecture 10: 4210 CVU Instrument Module - Measurement Techniques II
Keithley 4200-SCS: KITE Demo
Keithley 4200-SCS Lecture 11: 4210 CVU Instrument Module - Troubleshooting
Device Characterization with the Keithley 4200-SCS
This training session is based on the Keithley 4200-SCS Semiconductor Characterization System. It is intended for beginning to intermediate users. It covers basic concepts, both of the instrument, as well as general measurement considerations.
Atomistic Modeling and Simulation Tools for Nanoelectronics and their Deployment on nanoHUB.org
16 Dec 2010 | | Contributor(s):: Gerhard Klimeck
At the nanometer scale the concepts of device and material meet and a new device is a new material and vice versa. While atomistic device representations are novel to device physicists, the semiconductor materials modeling community usually treats infinitely periodic structures. Two electronic...
Chemically Enhanced Carbon-Based Nanomaterials and Devices
09 Nov 2010 | | Contributor(s):: Mark Hersam
Carbon-based nanomaterials have attracted significant attention due to their potential to enable and/or improve applications such as transistors, transparent conductors, solar cells, batteries, and biosensors. This talk will delineate chemical strategies for enhancing the electronic and optical...
Nanoelectronic Devices, With an Introduction to Spintronics
09 Sep 2010 | | Contributor(s):: Supriyo Datta, Mark Lundstrom
Nanoelectronic devices are at the heart of today's powerful computers and are also of great interest for many emerging applications including energy conversion, sensing and alternative computing paradigms. Our objective, however, is not to discuss specific devices or...
Discussion Session 2 (Lectures 3 and 4)
08 Sep 2010 | | Contributor(s):: Supriyo Datta
Lecture 3: Introduction to NEGF
Nanoelectronic Modeling Lecture 40: Performance Limitations of Graphene Nanoribbon Tunneling FETS due to Line Edge Roughness
05 Aug 2010 | | Contributor(s):: Gerhard Klimeck, Mathieu Luisier
This presentation the effects of line edge roughness on graphene nano ribbon (GNR) transitors..Learning Objectives:GNR TFET Simulation pz Tight-Binding Orbital Model 3D Schrödinger-Poisson Solver Device Simulation Structure Optimization (Doping, Lg, VDD) LER => Localized Band Gap States LER =>...
Nanoelectronic Modeling Lecture 39: OMEN: Band-to-Band-Tunneling Transistors
This presentation discusses the motivation for band-to-band tunneling transistors to lower the power requirements of the next generation transistors. The capabilities of OMEN to model such complex devices on an atomistic representation is demonstrated.Learning Objectives:Band-To-Band Tunneling...
Lecture 1b: Nanotransistors - A Bottom Up View
20 Jul 2010 | | Contributor(s):: Mark Lundstrom
MOSFET scaling continues to take transistors to smaller and smaller dimensions. Today, the MOSFET is a true nanoelectronic device – one of enormous importance for computing, data storage, and for communications. In this lecture, I will present a simple, physical model for the nanoscale MOSFET...
2010 NCN Annual Review S13: External Education - Cal Poly Pomona
16 Jun 2010 | | Contributor(s):: Tanya Faltens
Drift-Diffusion Modeling and Numerical Implementation Details
01 Jun 2010 | | Contributor(s):: Dragica Vasileska
This tutorial describes the constitutive equations for the drift-diffusion model and implementation details such as discretization and numerical solution of the algebraic equations that result from the finite difference discretization of the Poisson and the continuity...
Lecture 7: On Reliability and Randomness in Electronic Devices
14 Apr 2010 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad A. Alam
Outline:Background informationPrinciples of reliability physicsClassification of Electronic ReliabilityStructure Defects in Electronic MaterialsConclusions
Lecture 9: Breakdown in Thick Dielectrics
05 Apr 2010 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad A. Alam
Outline:Breakdown in gas dielectric and Paschen’s lawSpatial and temporal dynamics during breakdownBreakdown in bulk oxides: puzzleTheory of pre-existing defects: Thin oxidesTheory of pre-existing defects: thick oxidesConclusions
Lecture 8: Mechanics of Defect Generation and Gate Dielectric Breakdown
10 Mar 2010 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad A. Alam
Nanoelectronic Modeling Lecture 23: NEMO1D - Importance of New Boundary Conditions
09 Mar 2010 | | Contributor(s):: Gerhard Klimeck
One of the key insights gained during the NEMO1D project was the development of new boundary conditions that enabled the modeling of realistically extended Resonant Tunneling Diodes (RTDs). The new boundary conditions are based on the partitioning of the device into emitter and collector...
Illinois ECE 440 Solid State Electronic Devices, Lecture 21: P-N Diode Breakdown
07 Mar 2010 | | Contributor(s):: Eric Pop