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On June 30, 1948, AT&T Bell Labs unveiled the transitor to the world, creating a spark of explosive economic growth that would lead into the Information Age. William Shockley led a team of researchers, including Walter Brattain and John Bardeen, who invented the device. Like the existing triode vacuum tube device, the transistor could amplify signals and switch currents on and off, but the transistor was smaller, cheaper, and more efficient. Moreover, it could be integrated with millions of other transistors onto a single chip, creating the integrated circuit at the heart of modern computers.
Today, most transistors are being manufactured with a minimum feature size of 60-90nm--roughly 200-300 atoms. As the push continues to make devices even smaller, researchers must account for quantum mechanical effects in the device behavior. With fewer and fewer atoms, the positions of impurities and other irregularities begin to matter, and device reliability becomes an issue. So rather than shrink existing devices, many researchers are working on entirely new devices, based on carbon nanotubes, spintronics,
molecular conduction, and other nanotechnologies.
Learn more about transistors from the many resources on this site, listed below. Use our simulation tools to simulate performance characteristics for your own devices.
Illinois ECE 440: MOS Field-Effect Transistor Homework
28 Jan 2010 | | Contributor(s):: Mohamed Mohamed
This homework covers Output Characteristics and Mobility Model of MOSFETs.
Illinois ECE 440: Photodiodes Homework
This homework covers Current and Voltage in an Illuminated Junction, Solar Cells, and PN Junction Simulation.
Illinois ECE 440: PN Junction Homework
This homework covers P-N junctions in equilibrium, contact potential, and Space Charge at a Junction.
Illinois ECE 440: Solid State Electronic Devices Homework Assignments (Fall 2009)
Homework assignments for the Fall 2009 teaching of Illinois ECE 440: Solid State Electronic Devices.
Nanoelectronic Modeling: From Quantum Mechanics and Atoms to Realistic Devices
25 Jan 2010 | | Contributor(s):: Gerhard Klimeck
The goal of this series of lectures is to explain the critical concepts in the understanding of the state-of-the-art modeling of nanoelectronic devices such as resonant tunneling diodes, quantum wells, quantum dots, nanowires, and ultra-scaled transistors. Three fundamental concepts critical to...
Simulation of laser devices with ActiveMedia nanophotonics tool (ACME NPDS)
This tutorial is intended to demonstrate how to build a device and analyze its optical properties and lasing behavior.
Illinois ME 498 Introduction of Nano Science and Technology, Lecture 25: Nanomaterials and Devices for Solar Energy
29 Dec 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Nick Fang, Omar N Sobh
Nanomaterials and Devices for Solar EnergyTopics: Approaches: Breathing Membrane Continuous Operation Fuel Cell Water Management ElectroKinetic Nanobattery EDL Capacitators Laminar Flow Based Micro Fuel Cells The Energy in Sunlight Solar Energy Utilization Discovery of photovoltaic effect...
Illinois ME 498 Introduction of Nano Science and Technology, Lecture 23: Nanomaterials and Devices for Energy Conversion I
28 Dec 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Nick Fang, Omar N Sobh
Nanomaterials and Devices for Energy ConversionTopics: Overview of Actuators at Nanoscale Electrostatic Actuators Piezo-Actuators Surface Acoustic Wave Motors Actuator Selection Electrochemical Actuators Solid State Electrochemical Actuator Electrochemical nano-actuator Electrochemical...
Illinois ME 498 Introduction of Nano Science and Technology, Lecture 24: Nanomaterials and Devices for Energy Conversion II
Nanomaterials and Devices for Energy Conversion IITopics: Electrochemistry - Energy Storage Non-linear Diffusion Effect in Electrochemistry Architecture of 3-D batteries Nanomaterials for Energy Storage Solutions for Reversibility Nano-wire Lithium Ion Batteries Nano-wire Solar Cells Micro Nano...
Molecular Sensors for MEMS
10 Dec 2009 | | Contributor(s):: John P. Sullivan
This seminar will cover the issues involved in using molecular sensors in MEMS and their application to microchannels, supersonic micronozzles, microjet impingement, microturbines and unsteady fluidic actuators.
Taxonomy of spintronics (a zoo of devices)
out of 5 stars
02 Nov 2006 | | Contributor(s):: Dmitri Nikonov, George Bourianoff
The presentation deals with classification of logic devices based on electron spin as a computational variable. Requirements for logic devices are reviewed. Specifically we focus on a) concatenability (output of one device can drive another) and b) the complete set of Boolean operators (NOT,...
Optical BioMEMS Microfluidic Technologies for Hand-Held, Point-of-Care, Medical Devices
23 Nov 2009 | | Contributor(s):: James Leary
Portable, point-of-care, medical diagnostic devices could provide an important new component in more cost-effective healthcare delivery. Rapid measurements of blood samples during an examination within a doctor’s office or in the field, could allow immediate appropriate treatment of medical...
Illinois ECE 440 Solid State Electronic Devices, Lecture 20: P-N Diode in Reverse Bias
30 Oct 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Eric Pop
Recap diode (forward, zero, reverse) bias diagrams.Recap some of the equations.
Illinois ECE 440 Solid State Electronic Devices, Lecture 19: Current Flow in P-N Diode
28 Oct 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Eric Pop
Last time, we talked about unbiased p-n junction.Today: biased (Vext ≠ 0) p-n junction & current flow
Lecture 6: 3D Nets in a 3D World: Bulk Heterostructure Solar Cells
29 Jul 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad A. Alam
Outline:Introduction: definitions and review
Reaction diffusion in fractal volumesCarrier transport in BH solar cellsAll phase transitions are not fractalConclusions
Lecture 5: 2D Nets in a 3D World: Basics of Nanobiosensors and Fractal Antennae
Outline:Background: A different type of transport problem
Example: Classical biosensorsFractal dimension and cantor transformExample: fractal nanobiosensors Conclusions
Appendix: Transparent Electrodes and Antenna
Illinois ECE 440 Solid State Electronic Devices, Lecture 18: P-N Diode Electrostatics
21 Oct 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Eric Pop
Last time, we talked about p-n junction built-in voltage V¬0.Today: more about p-n electrostatics.
Illinois ECE 440 Solid State Electronic Devices, Lecture 16-17: Diffusion
20 Oct 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Eric Pop
So far:•Energy bands, Doping, Fermi levels•Drift (~n*v), diffusion (~dn/dx)•Einstein relationship (D/μ = kT/q)•“Boring” semiconductor resistors (either n- or p-type)•Majority/minority carriers with illuminationToday, our first “useful” device:•The P-N junction diode in equilibrium (external...
Illinois ECE 440 Solid State Electronic Devices, Lecture 14-15: Diffusion with Recombination
08 Oct 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Eric Pop
•Diffusion with recombination•The diffusion length (distance until they recombine)
Illinois ECE 440 Solid State Electronic Devices, Lecture 13: Diffusion
01 Oct 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Eric Pop
ECE 440: Lecture 13Diffusion Current