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Tags: devices

Description

On June 30, 1948, AT&T Bell Labs unveiled the transitor to the world, creating a spark of explosive economic growth that would lead into the Information Age. William Shockley led a team of researchers, including Walter Brattain and John Bardeen, who invented the device. Like the existing triode vacuum tube device, the transistor could amplify signals and switch currents on and off, but the transistor was smaller, cheaper, and more efficient. Moreover, it could be integrated with millions of other transistors onto a single chip, creating the integrated circuit at the heart of modern computers.

Today, most transistors are being manufactured with a minimum feature size of 60-90nm--roughly 200-300 atoms. As the push continues to make devices even smaller, researchers must account for quantum mechanical effects in the device behavior. With fewer and fewer atoms, the positions of impurities and other irregularities begin to matter, and device reliability becomes an issue. So rather than shrink existing devices, many researchers are working on entirely new devices, based on carbon nanotubes, spintronics, molecular conduction, and other nanotechnologies.

Learn more about transistors from the many resources on this site, listed below. Use our simulation tools to simulate performance characteristics for your own devices.

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  1. Nanoelectronics: The New Frontier?

    18 Apr 2005 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Mark Lundstrom

    After forty years of advances in integrated circuit technology, microelectronics is undergoing a transformation to nanoelectronics. Modern day MOSFETs now have channel lengths of only 50 nm, and...

    http://nanohub.org/resources/185

  2. Transistors

    04 Aug 2004 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Mark Lundstrom

    The transistor is the basic element of electronic systems. The integrated circuits inside today's personal computers, cell phones, PDA's, etc., contain hundreds of millions of transistors on a...

    http://nanohub.org/resources/167

  3. NanoMOS 2.5 Source Code Download

    22 Feb 2005 | Downloads | Contributor(s): Zhibin Ren, Sebastien Goasguen

    NanoMOS is a 2-D simulator for thin body (less than 5 nm), fully depleted, double-gated n-MOSFETs. A choice of five transport models is available (drift-diffusion, classical ballistic, energy...

    http://nanohub.org/resources/110

  4. Exponential Challenges, Exponential Rewards - The Future of Moore's Law

    14 Dec 2004 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Shekhar Borkar

    Three exponentials have been the foundation of today's electronics, which are often taken for granted—namely transistor density, performance, and energy. Moore's Law captures the impact of...

    http://nanohub.org/resources/177

  5. NEMO 1-D: The First NEGF-based TCAD Tool and Network for Computational Nanotechnology

    28 Dec 2004 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Gerhard Klimeck

    Nanotechnology has received a lot of public attention since U.S. President Clinton announced the U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative. New approaches to applications in electronics,...

    http://nanohub.org/resources/178

  6. Electronic Transport in Semiconductors (Introductory Lecture)

    25 Aug 2004 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Mark Lundstrom

    Welcome to the ECE 656 Introductory lecture. The objective of the course is to develop a clear, physical understanding of charge carrier transport in bulk semiconductors and in small semiconductor...

    http://nanohub.org/resources/169

  7. Nanoelectronic Scaling Tradeoffs: What does Physics Have to Say?

    23 Sep 2003 | Presentation Materials | Contributor(s): Victor Zhirnov

    Beyond CMOS, several completely new approaches to information-processing and data-storage technologies and architectures are emerging to address the timeframe beyond the current SIA International...

    http://nanohub.org/resources/146

  8. Nanoelectronics and the Future of Microelectronics

    22 Aug 2002 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): Mark Lundstrom

    Progress in silicon technology continues to outpace the historic pace of Moore's Law, but the end of device scaling now seems to be only 10-15 years away. As a result, there is intense interest in...

    http://nanohub.org/resources/141

  9. Towards a Terahertz Solid State Bloch Oscillator

    29 Jan 2004 | Online Presentations | Contributor(s): S. James Allen

    The concepts of Bloch oscillation and Zener breakdown are fundamental to electron motion in periodic potentials and were described in the earliest theoretical developments of electron transport in...

    http://nanohub.org/resources/150

nanoHUB.org, a resource for nanoscience and nanotechnology, is supported by the National Science Foundation and other funding agencies. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.