## Bound States Lab Learning Materials

by Dragica Vasileska and Gerhard Klimeck

By completing the Bound States Calculation Lab in Bound States Calculation Lab, users will be able to: a) understand the concept of bound states, b) the meaning of the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors, and c) the form of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors for rectangular, parabolic and triangular confinement.

The specific objectives of the Bound States Calculation Lab are:

Users who are new to the concept of bound states and solution of the Schrodinger equation for bound states should consult the following resources:

1. D. K. Ferry:

2. S. Datta

## Theoretical descriptions

* Physical and Analytical Description of the Operation of a PN Diode (physical, analytical model)

* PN junction in forward bias (simulation)

* Numerical solution of the Drift-Diffusion Equations for a diode (computational model)

* Drift-Diffusion Modeling and Numerical Implementation Details (implementation details and source code dissemination)

## Tool Verification

Verification of the PN-Junction tool is done by comparison of the simulation results for the electric field in equilibrium with the depletion charge approximation results. This verification process can be done only while running the tool, as it superimposes the depletion charge approximation results.

## Examples

The following Worked Examples for a PN Diode are described in detail:

Example 1: Equilibrium PN-Junction

Example 2: PN-Junction Under Bias

Example 3: Non-Symmetric Junction

Example 4: Series Resistance

## Solutions to Exercises

Solutions are provided only to instructors!

## Evaluation

This test will assess the users conceptual understanding of the physical, mathematical and computational knowledge related to the operation and modeling of PN Junctions.

## Challenge

Users are challenged to integrate what they have learned about PN Junctions.