General Chemistry courses are taught at every college and university, and usually the goal is to cover the field of chemistry broadly over the course of an academic year. The topics included in such courses have evolved with time, but generally the emphasis is on the structural and thermodynamic properties of atoms and molecules and on chemical reactions and kinetics. New topics which have gradually appeared in the last 20 years are biomolecules and the properties of materials. Topics which usually don’t get much attention in General Chemistry textbooks are nanomaterials and computation. At Northwestern University, we have been adding new material pertaining to nanomaterials and computation to our General Chemistry classes since 2006. The new material has been added as modules into the laboratory component of the course, and includes experiments in which the students synthesize nanoparticles, measure some properties, and then use codes at the nanohub to model the results and interpret the experiments. In addition, we have developed a computational chemistry lab that is a stand-alone one-week assignment for General Chemistry lab. These laboratory modules are coordinated with lecture material in the General Chemistry courses, either in conjunction with the descriptive chemistry section or when we talk about quantum mechanics. During the last several years, these modules have been used in classes where hundreds of students use the nanohub at the same time.
Here are the three modules that we have developed:
* Gold and silver nanoparticle synthesis, characterization and modeling: This is a combined experiment/computational lab in which gold nanoparticles are synthesized, their optical properties are measured, and then a nanohub tool named the Nanosphere Optics Lab is used to model these optical properties and derive information from the observed spectra.
* Cadmium selenide synthesis, characterization and modeling: This is a combined experiment/computational lab in which cadmium selenide quantum dot nanoparticles are synthesized, their spectra are studied, and the results are modeling using the INDO/CNDO semiempirical electronic structure code.
* Electronic structure calculations using QC-Lab: This is a purely computational project that is concerned with using the nanohub tool QC-Lab to create and optimize molecules, and to study their spectroscopic and structural properties. The molecules studied are generally small molecules of interest to atmospheric chemistry, however the tool can be used for applications in nanoscience, and there are followup projects (not appropriate for freshman) that study the properties of carbon nanotubes and molecules important in vision.
These laboratories use three applications from the nanohub: Nanosphere Optics Lab, INDO/CNDO and QC-Lab. Nanosphere Optics Laboratory is a code which performs Mie theory calculations to determine the extinction and scattering spectra of spherical nanoparticles. INDO/CNDO performs semiempirical electronic structure calculations and is intended to be used to model electronic spectra. QC-Lab is a general purpose interface for the GAMESS electronic structure code, and can be used to determine the structures and spectra of molecules and materials based on density functional, semiempirical and wave-function-based methods. QC-Lab and INDO/CNDO are components of NUITNS, which is an umbrella for several codes that can be used for teaching nanoscience, however QC-Lab and INDO/CNDO can be run stand-alone as well.
Writeups for the three labs are available as attached documents to this page. These write-ups include experimental procedures as well as computational modeling. Obviously the ability to do the experiments depends on what you have in your chemistry lab!
Links to Tools
Molecular Modeling and Electronic Structure Calculations
George Schatz, Baudilio Tejerina, Shelby Hatch and Jennifer Roden
Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113
QC_Lab_module.pdf (275 Kb, uploaded by Marcelo Carignano 4 years 2 weeks ago)
Synthesis and Analysis of Silver/Gold Nanoparticles
Shelby Hatch and George Schatz
Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208
Silvergold_module.pdf (101 Kb, uploaded by Marcelo Carignano 4 years 2 weeks ago)
Synthesis and Size Dependent Properties of
CdSe Quantum Dots
Evan R. Trivedi and Shelby L. Hatch
Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208
CdSe_quantum_dot_module.pdf (902 Kb, uploaded by Marcelo Carignano 4 years 2 weeks ago)