Support

Support Options

Submit a Support Ticket

 

Usage: Tools

Top Tools by Simulation Users
# Tool Simulation Users Percent
Total Simulation Users 73,432 100.00%
1 PN Junction Lab 8,777 11.95%
2 Crystal Viewer Tool 7,294 9.93%
3 Band Structure Lab 6,533 8.90%
4 Nanosphere Optics Lab 6,446 8.78%
5 ABACUS - Assembly of Basic Applications for Coordinated Understanding of Semiconductors 6,312 8.60%
6 Quantum Dot Lab 5,451 7.42%
7 MOSFet 5,441 7.41%
8 MOSCap 5,126 6.98%
9 CNTbands 5,113 6.96%
10 QC-Lab 4,974 6.77%
11 Drift-Diffusion Lab 3,659 4.98%
12 FETToy 3,560 4.85%
13 CNDO/INDO 3,530 4.81%
14 nano-Materials Simulation Toolkit 2,940 4.00%
15 Carrier Statistics Lab 2,865 3.90%
16 MIT Atomic Scale Modeling Toolkit 2,849 3.88%
17 Schred 2,795 3.81%
18 BJT Lab 2,764 3.76%
19 Illinois Solid State Electronic Devices Classes Tools 2,635 3.59%
20 Spice3f4 2,612 3.56%
21 ABINIT 2,555 3.48%
22 NanoMOS 2,527 3.44%
23 Nanowire 2,311 3.15%
24 1D Heterostructure Tool 2,282 3.11%
25 a TCAD Lab 2,155 2.93%
26 Resonant Tunneling Diode Simulation with NEGF 2,093 2.85%
27 Periodic Potential Lab 2,003 2.73%
28 VEDA: Virtual Environment for Dynamic AFM 1,922 2.62%
29 Resonant Tunneling Diode Simulator 1,904 2.59%
30 MSL Simulator 1,872 2.55%
31 DFT calculations with Quantum ESPRESSO 1,863 2.54%
32 Padre 1,801 2.45%
33 CNTFET Lab 1,764 2.40%
34 UV/Vis Spectra simulator 1,577 2.15%
35 Adept 1,534 2.09%
36 OOF2 1,513 2.06%
37 Effect of Doping on Semiconductors 1,469 2.00%
38 Piece-Wise Constant Potential Barriers Tool 1,402 1.91%
39 Workspace 1,402 1.91%
40 OMEN Nanowire 1,347 1.83%
41 Nano-CMOS 1,343 1.83%
42 MolCToy 1,294 1.76%
43 Chess 1,279 1.74%
44 Process Lab: Concentration-Dependent Diffusion 1,192 1.62%
45 NanoTCAD ViDES 1,181 1.61%
46 Meep 1,151 1.57%
47 CNT_bands 1,144 1.56%
48 VEDA 2.0 (Virtual Environment for Dynamic AFM) 1,126 1.53%
49 SUGARCube - Cantilever 1,090 1.48%
50 NanoFET 1,084 1.48%
51 Archimedes, GNU Monte Carlo simulator 1,060 1.44%
52 AQME - Advancing Quantum Mechanics for Engineers 1,022 1.39%
53 Nanosphere Optics Lab Field Simulator 976 1.33%
54 Nano-Plasmonic Bowtie Antenna Simulator 957 1.30%
55 MuGFET 933 1.27%
56 1D Drift Diffusion Model for Crystalline Solar Cells 892 1.21%
57 Schottky-Barrier CNFET 884 1.20%
58 Bound States Calculation Lab 883 1.20%
59 Prophet 872 1.19%
60 Boltzmann Transport Simulator for CNTs 863 1.18%
61 PhotonicsDB: Optical Constants 845 1.15%
62 Process Lab:Oxidation 841 1.15%
63 OCTAViEw 836 1.14%
64 Carbon Nanotubes Interconnect Analyzer (CNIA) 832 1.13%
65 BioSensorLab 816 1.11%
66 Cylindrical CNT MOSFET Simulator 797 1.09%
67 nanoMATERIALS SeqQuest DFT 792 1.08%
68 SIESTA 784 1.07%
69 StrainBands 779 1.06%
70 Theoretical Electron Density Visualizer 768 1.05%
71 biomoca 758 1.03%
72 Molecular Foundry Photonics Toolkit 701 0.95%
73 Illinois Tools: Basic Bulk Silicon Transport Data at 300K 697 0.95%
74 Extinction, Scattering and Absorption efficiencies of single and multilayer nanoparticles 689 0.94%
75 Polymer Modeler 674 0.92%
76 MESFET Lab 662 0.90%
77 The Virtual Kinetics of Materials Laboratory 657 0.89%
78 Northwestern University Initiative for Teaching Nanoscience 651 0.89%
79 Illinois Tools: PN Junction Long-Base Depletion Approximation 645 0.88%
80 Illinois Tools: MOCA 642 0.87%
81 Simple Photonic Crystals 637 0.87%
82 Berkeley GW 635 0.86%
83 CENEMS 632 0.86%
84 NanoNet 631 0.86%
85 Graphene Interconnect 630 0.86%
86 Multi-gate Nanowire FET 627 0.85%
87 BioMOCA Suite 623 0.85%
88 CNTphonons 616 0.84%
89 ADEPT 2.1 611 0.83%
90 QWalk Quantum Monte Carlo Tutorial 599 0.82%
91 GFET Tool 598 0.81%
92 Assembly for Nanotechnology Survey Courses 588 0.80%
93 CNT Heterojunction Modeler 583 0.79%
94 MD Simulation 582 0.79%
95 Nano Heatflow 572 0.78%
96 Carbon nanotube based NEMS with cantilever structure 570 0.78%
97 Carbon nanotube based fixed-fixed NEMS 569 0.77%
98 Coulomb Blockade Simulation 569 0.77%
99 Thermoelectric Power Factor Calculator for Superlattices 566 0.77%
100 Atomistic Green\\\'s Function Method 1-D Atomic Chain Simulation 548 0.75%
101 Modeling Interface-defect Generation (MIG) 547 0.74%
102 Molecular Structure Tracer 532 0.72%
103 MIT Photonic Bands 530 0.72%
104 PhotonicsSHA-2D: Modeling of Single-Period Multilayer Optical Gratings and Metamaterials 525 0.71%
105 1D Finite Different Method Conduction Heat Transfer Tool 524 0.71%
106 demons 521 0.71%
107 PETE : Purdue Emerging Technology Evaluator 517 0.70%
108 QuaMC2D 514 0.70%
109 MIT Tools for Energy Conversion and Storage 508 0.69%
110 Periodic Potential 506 0.69%
111 FD integral calculator 490 0.67%
112 PhotonicsRT: Wave Propagation in Multilayer Structures 484 0.66%
113 Equilibrium Wulff Shape Generator 477 0.65%
114 Bulk Monte Carlo Lab 458 0.62%
115 Semiconductor Doping 453 0.62%
116 Thermoelectric Power Factor Calculator for Nanocrystalline Composites 453 0.62%
117 Quantum and Semi-classical Electrostatics Simulation of SOI Trigates 447 0.61%
118 CNT Mobility 446 0.61%
119 tsuprem4 439 0.60%
120 Nanowire Tensile Deformation Lab 429 0.58%
121 90 Degrees Beam Propagation 428 0.58%
122 Memristor Simulation Tool 423 0.58%
123 MIT Virtual-Source Tool 423 0.58%
124 Brillouin Zone Viewer 418 0.57%
125 ElectroMat 418 0.57%
126 MOSFET Simulation 396 0.54%
127 ANGEL - A Nonequilibrium Green Function Solver for LEDs 389 0.53%
128 REBO 387 0.53%
129 Quantum Dot Quantum Computation Simulator 370 0.50%
130 imageJ 363 0.49%
131 nanoJoule 361 0.49%
132 OMEN_FET 360 0.49%
133 Hydrophobicity Lab 360 0.49%
134 CGTB 358 0.49%
135 Virtual Kinetics of Materials Laboratory : Polycrystalline Growth and Coarsening 350 0.48%
136 PV Analyzer 348 0.47%
137 nanoDDSCAT 347 0.47%
138 1-D Chain Dispersions 342 0.47%
139 Micelle 335 0.46%
140 Matdcal 328 0.45%
141 VEDA: Amplitude Modulated Scanning 327 0.45%
142 OPV Lab 322 0.44%
143 Micromechanics Simulation Tool 319 0.43%
144 Carrier Concentration 317 0.43%
145 Process Lab: Oxidation Flux 315 0.43%
146 Virtual Kinetics of Materials Laboratory : Spinodal Decomposition 293 0.40%
147 Gibbs 293 0.40%
148 Virtual Kinetics of Materials Laboratory: Spinodal Decomposition 3D 289 0.39%
149 Thin-Film and Multi-Element Thermoelectric Devices Simulator 283 0.39%
150 Path Integral Monte Carlo 279 0.38%
151 ACUTE 278 0.38%
152 KP Nanowire/UTB FET 276 0.38%
153 VEDA: Dynamic Approach Curves 273 0.37%
154 Monte Carlo DNA Simulator 270 0.37%
155 Process Lab: Defect-coupled diffusion 262 0.36%
156 NanoPlasticity Lab 261 0.36%
157 Mobility and Resistivity Tool 257 0.35%
158 Graphene Raman Imaging and Spectroscopy Processing v1.2 246 0.34%
159 Spin Coupled Quantum Dots 239 0.33%
160 Crack Propagation Lab 238 0.32%
161 Amorphous Silicon Generator 232 0.32%
162 Illinois Tools: PN Junction Short-Base Depletion Approximation 231 0.31%
163 Illinois Tools: Multigrid Tutorial 231 0.31%
164 Analytic Spin Precession Simulator 229 0.31%
165 PVpanel Sim 227 0.31%
166 PNP Cyclic Peptide Ion Channel Model 226 0.31%
167 Virtual Kinetics of Materials Laboratory: Dendritic Growth 226 0.31%
168 Hyperlens Design Solver 225 0.31%
169 Illinois Tools: NP Junction: Long-Base Depletion Approximation 223 0.30%
170 Stick2D 222 0.30%
171 Bulk GaAs Ensemble Monte Carlo 220 0.30%
172 Atomic Stick-Slip 217 0.30%
173 Illinois Tools: Nanoparticles Array Lab 217 0.30%
174 Stretching Simulation of FCC Crystal 215 0.29%
175 2d Ideal Gas Molecular Dynamics 215 0.29%
176 Illinois Tools: Optics Lab 212 0.29%
177 Genetic algorithm 212 0.29%
178 Illinois Tools: NanoGromacs_Intro 198 0.27%
179 Magnetic Tunnel Junction Lab 195 0.27%
180 S4: Stanford Stratified Structure Solver 194 0.26%
181 nanoMATERIALS nanoscale heat transport 188 0.26%
182 Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion simulator 187 0.25%
183 SugarAid Thermodynamics 186 0.25%
184 DDSCAT Convert: A Target Generation Tool 185 0.25%
185 SugarCube 182 0.25%
186 Prophet Nanowire 181 0.25%
187 MiniMol: Minimal Molecular Simulation Tool 180 0.25%
188 Illinois Tools: NanoGromacs 180 0.25%
189 DBR Laser Simulator 172 0.23%
190 Sugaraid 172 0.23%
191 Electron Magnetic Resonance (EMR) in Nanoparticles 169 0.23%
192 Thermoelectric Generator Module with Convective Heat Transfer 168 0.23%
193 Intro to MOS-Capacitor Tool 166 0.23%
194 Composite Laminate Analysis 161 0.22%
195 MEMSLab 160 0.22%
196 Stretching simulation of an alpha-helical protein domain 158 0.22%
197 Coarse Grain Lipid Simulator 157 0.21%
198 Linearized Boltzmann transport calculator for thermoelectric materials 155 0.21%
199 Circuit Elements 152 0.21%
200 MEMS Resonator - Tang 150 0.20%
201 Capacitance Modeling Tool Using Schwarz-Christoffel Mapping 150 0.20%
202 SEST 148 0.20%
203 nanoDDSCAT+ 148 0.20%
204 MEEPPV 146 0.20%
205 Function Discovery Tool 144 0.20%
206 LCOE Calculator 143 0.19%
207 Illinois Tools: Nanoparticle Quantitative Lab 141 0.19%
208 Forced Protein Unfolding 141 0.19%
209 Medici 139 0.19%
210 Protein Contact Maps 138 0.19%
211 Illinois Tools: NanoGromacsDemo 138 0.19%
212 Model for Far From Equilibrium Transport in CNT/GNR FETs 135 0.18%
213 Hyperlens Layer Designer 125 0.17%
214 Small Molecules in Intense Lasers via Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory 124 0.17%
215 SUGARCube - ADXL Accelerometer 123 0.17%
216 Rode\'s Method 120 0.16%
217 Illinois Tools: Bio Photonics Simulator 119 0.16%
218 Illinois Tools: NP Junction: Short-Base Depletion Approximation 116 0.16%
219 XPS Thickness Solver 115 0.16%
220 Illinois Tools: Optical Beam Focusing System 112 0.15%
221 EPR - ESR 111 0.15%
222 Modeling Thermal Interaction between Laser Light and AFM 110 0.15%
223 Normal Distribution 109 0.15%
224 PhotonicsCL: Photonic Cylindrical Multilayer Lenses 107 0.15%
225 Nanostructured Optoelectronics Toolbox 106 0.14%
226 Bio Composite Simulator 105 0.14%
227 Nanoindentation 104 0.14%
228 SUGARCube - Netlist Input Tool 103 0.14%
229 Base Motion Calculations 103 0.14%
230 Exciton Dynamics Simulator 102 0.14%
231 Anisotropy Calculator - 3D Visualization Toolkit 100 0.14%
232 Polymatic 100 0.14%
233 ReaxFF 100 0.14%
234 Micro-Mechanics Simulation Tool: Thin film 100 0.14%
235 cadnano to PDB File Converter 99 0.13%
236 SugarAid ECE202 97 0.13%
237 Minority Carrier Diffusion Equation (MCDE) Tool 95 0.13%
238 Exciton Dynamics Lab for Light-Harvesting Complexes (GPU-HEOM) 93 0.13%
239 Thermoelectric Power Generator System Optimization and Cost Analysis 92 0.13%
240 Perfect Absorber Metamaterial simulator 89 0.12%
241 Random laser dynamics 86 0.12%
242 Illinois Tools: Nanofilm Lab 86 0.12%
243 Ohms Law 83 0.11%
244 SUGARCube - Chevron Thermal Actuator 83 0.11%
245 Simulation and Admittance Analysis for Advanced Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Characterization 81 0.11%
246 Uniaxial and Biaxial Stress Strain Calculator for Semiconductors 79 0.11%
247 Analytic conduction solutions 79 0.11%
248 On-Chip Thermoelectric Cooling Tool 78 0.11%
249 1-D Phonon BTE Solver 77 0.10%
250 hotSPICE 76 0.10%
251 Mass spectrum ion trajectory 76 0.10%
252 Active Media FDTD Nanophotonic Device Simulator 76 0.10%
253 Crystalline Cellulose - Atomistic Toolkit 74 0.10%
254 Berkeley XAS 72 0.10%
255 Illinois Tools: Biconvex Lens 71 0.10%
256 Illinois Tool: FIONA (Fluorescence Imaging with One Nanometer Accuracy) 69 0.09%
257 Two-temperature Non-equilibrium Molecular Dynamics Simulator 67 0.09%
258 Nano-Bio-Photonics Simulator 67 0.09%
259 Clustermag 66 0.09%
260 Bayesian Calibration 66 0.09%
261 Exciton Annihilation Simulator 65 0.09%
262 LanTraP 65 0.09%
263 Particle Velocity Estimate 64 0.09%
264 PC1D 64 0.09%
265 Q-factor calculator with Uncertainty Quantification 63 0.09%
266 PhotonicsGAIN-0D 62 0.08%
267 Temperature Accelerated Dynamics 61 0.08%
268 IMOD online 61 0.08%
269 Series and Parallel 60 0.08%
270 Comb Drive Levitation 60 0.08%
271 Bulk Heterojunction Morphology Generator 59 0.08%
272 Multimeter 58 0.08%
273 Graphene Switch Box 54 0.07%
274 Hyper-REBO 54 0.07%
275 LAMMPS 53 0.07%
276 Jamming of Soft Frictionless Spheres 53 0.07%
277 Quasicontinuum Method 53 0.07%
278 A Blind Fish in a River with a Waterfall 53 0.07%
279 Cyber-Infrastructure for Imaging and Simulation of Molecular and Cellular Mechanics (CISMCM) 52 0.07%
280 MEMS Piezoelectric Vibrational Energy Harvesting Lab 52 0.07%
281 Carbon Nanotube Relay 52 0.07%
282 Nanoindentation close to an interface 51 0.07%
283 Solar PV 51 0.07%
284 Near-field radiation transport between two planes 50 0.07%
285 Computational Nanodynamics Lab 49 0.07%
286 Functionalization Workbench 48 0.07%
287 TEM Lattice Calculator 46 0.06%
288 Crack Propagation Simulation 46 0.06%
289 Impedance Adder 45 0.06%
290 Convolution Tool 44 0.06%
291 SMC 42 0.06%
292 Bandgap Optimizer for Spectral Splitting PV Systems 42 0.06%
293 Modeling of Optical Multilayers for Both Spectra and Admittance Loci 42 0.06%
294 Simulator for a T-stub transistor in a magnetic field 41 0.06%
295 Polymer Nano Brush 40 0.05%
296 PhotonicVASEfit: VASE fitting tool 40 0.05%
297 ab initio Model for Mobility and Seebeck coefficient using Boltzmann Transport (aMoBT) equation 39 0.05%
298 Isotropic random fracture model for metal hydride powder 38 0.05%
299 Resistor Color Code 38 0.05%
300 Passive Filter Circuits 36 0.05%
301 nuSIMM: nanoHUB user Simulation Interface for Molecular Modeling 34 0.05%
302 Energies and Lifetimes with Complex-Scaling 34 0.05%
303 Molecular Dynamics Showcase 33 0.04%
304 Free Edge Approximation for the Angle-Ply Laminate 33 0.04%
305 Pattern Formation in Bacterial Populations 32 0.04%
306 Finite Buffer dCME (fb-dCME) 32 0.04%
307 Nisin Diffusion Tool 31 0.04%
308 QSTEM online 29 0.04%
309 TRANSpull: computes pulling coupled to transport properties of single molecules. 29 0.04%
310 Phasor 29 0.04%
311 Nanoindentation of Soft Elastic Materials 28 0.04%
312 Bimodal Polymer Nano Brush 28 0.04%
313 Frenkel-Kontarova Model 28 0.04%
314 Model and Algorithm Prototyping Platform 28 0.04%
315 MOLpull: A tool for molecular free energy reconstruction along a pulling coordinate 28 0.04%
316 DFT Material Properties Simulator 28 0.04%
317 HgCdTe Photodetector Lab 27 0.04%
318 Gaussian process regression in 1D 27 0.04%
319 PhotonicsPOS: Particle on Substrate 27 0.04%
320 Optical Properties of Single Coaxial Nanowires 27 0.04%
321 Quantum Point Contact 26 0.04%
322 Nanoindentation of soft viscoelastic materials 22 0.03%
323 Rosenbrock Function for testing Uncertainty Quantification 22 0.03%
324 Tensile Mechanics of alpha-Helical Polypeptides 21 0.03%
325 Thermophotonic Selective Emitter Simulation 21 0.03%
326 DSMC 1D Planar Couette Flow 21 0.03%
327 Powder Compaction 20 0.03%
328 [Illinois]: Neural Systems Modeling Ch 1-5 Master Tool 20 0.03%
329 Neural Systems Modeling Ch10-13 Master Tool 20 0.03%
330 Cu in CdTe Lab 17 0.02%
331 Hot Carrier Degradation Universal Scaling 16 0.02%
332 Combined Microstructure and Heat Transfer Modeling of Carbon Nanotube Thermal Interface Materials 16 0.02%
333 Hydrodynamic Particle Trapping 16 0.02%
334 Delta-Wye 16 0.02%
335 III-V Strain Compensation Calculator 15 0.02%
336 Creep deformation in RF-MEMS 15 0.02%
337 Continuous casting of weld filler wire 15 0.02%
338 DSMC 0D Equilibrium 14 0.02%
339 Multiscale Modeling of Thermoelectric Cooler 14 0.02%
340 Nanomaterial mechanics explorer 13 0.02%
341 [Illinois]: Big Mess 12 0.02%
342 Coarse-Grained Model of RF MEMS Device 12 0.02%
343 [Illinois]: Velocity storage and leakage 11 0.01%
344 TPV efficiency simulation 11 0.01%
345 System of Systems Analytic Workbench Toolset 11 0.01%
346 ?plasma for Modified Paschen Curve Calculator 11 0.01%
347 Nanoscale Solid-State Lighting Device Simulator 10 0.01%
348 Viscoelastic Shear Lag 9 0.01%
349 Fowler Nordheim Field Emission Calculator 8 0.01%
350 Traction Force Microscopy 8 0.01%
351 Projectile Motion Example Tool 8 0.01%
352 [Illinois]: Neural Systems Modeling Ch 6-9 Master Tool 8 0.01%
353 [Illinois]: Midbrain dopamine neuron responses to temporal-difference learning 8 0.01%
354 [Illinois]: Kohonen self-organizing map (SOM) algorithm 8 0.01%
355 [Illinois]: Two leaky integrators in series 7 0.01%
356 [Illinois]: Fish classification using back-propagation 7 0.01%
357 [Illinois]: Gill withdrawal habituation 6 0.01%
358 Gaussian processes 1D 6 0.01%
359 Granular Crystals 6 0.01%
360 [Illinois]: Avoidance Learn Simulation 6 0.01%
361 [Illinois]: Temporal Difference, Iterative Dynamic Programming, and Least Mean Squares 6 0.01%
362 [Illinois]: Optimize Connectivity Profile of Activity-Bubble Network 6 0.01%
363 [Illinois]: Predictor-corrector simulation of parabigeminal nucleus neural responses 5 0.01%
364 MyTestTool 5 0.01%
365 Locust-flight central pattern generator 5 0.01%
366 Simulate Knudsen Thermal Forces using DSMC solver SPARTA 5 0.01%
367 [Illinois] A Response of a Single Neuron with Positive Feedback 4 0.01%
368 [Illinois]: Direction Selectivity 4 0.01%
369 [Illinois]: BUTDprobInference 4 0.01%
370 [Illinois]: Predict Correct Set Up 4 0.01%
371 [Illinois]: AsynchUp 4 0.01%
372 [Illiniois]: SynchUp 4 0.01%
373 ab initio simulations with ORCA 4 0.01%
374 [Illinois] KohonenSOM 4 0.01%
375 Gaussian processes 2D 4 0.01%
376 [Illinois]: Posterior probabilities of hypothetical fish classes 4 0.01%
377 [Illinois]: Posterior target probability given single-sensory input (delta rule) 4 0.01%
378 [Illinois]: BUTDjointDistribution 4 0.01%
379 [Illinois]: Avoidance Learn Simulation with 'Call' Neuron 4 0.01%
380 Time-dependent gate oxide breakdown Lab 4 0.01%
381 [Illinois]: Error Gradient Estimations Due to Perturbation of One Weight at a Time 3 0.00%
382 2D cluster analysis 3 0.00%
383 MEMOSA-based 2-Dimensional Pull-In Voltage Simulation 3 0.00%
384 nicktest title update3334 3 0.00%
385 R3 Model Xyce Simulation Lab 3 0.00%
386 Workspace for test VNC server and novnc client 3 0.00%
387 Two-unit oculomotor integrator 3 0.00%
388 Workspace running on Moonshot nodes 3 0.00%
389 Generation Model with Coupled Mode Theory 3 0.00%
390 [Illinois]: Posterior probability of a target given input for two senses (Bayes') 3 0.00%
391 [Illinois]: Perturbative Reinforcement Learning to Develop Distributed Representations 2 0.00%
392 [Illinois]: Posterior probability of a target given single-sensory input (Bayes') 2 0.00%
393 [Illinois]: Running Average 2 0.00%
394 Distribution Fitting and Goodness Determination 2 0.00%
395 [Illinois]: Sigmoidal unit training with the delta rule 2 0.00%
396 A computational method for rapid prediction of amyloid beta-fibril structures 2 0.00%
397 [Illinois]: Error Gradient Estimations Due to Parallel Perturbation of Weights 2 0.00%
398 Cluster Optimization BGO 01 2 0.00%
399 [Illinois]: Posterior probability of a target given input for two senses (delta) 1 0.00%
400 Microbeam Dynamics with Varying Force Model 1 0.00%
401 [Illinois]: Perturbative Reinforcement Learning Using Directed Drift 1 0.00%

nanoHUB.org, a resource for nanoscience and nanotechnology, is supported by the National Science Foundation and other funding agencies. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.