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EE 3329 - Electronic Devices Syllabus

by Greg Lush

EE 3329 – Electronic Devices Syllabus (“Extended Play”)

The University of Texas at El Paso

The following concepts can be part of the syllabus for the Electronic Devices (EE 3329) course. Note that the list of topics cannot be covered in a semester, it is up to the individual instructors to choose what concepts they wish to cover.

I. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics

* Principles of Quantum Mechanics

  • Energy Quanta
  • Wave-Particle Duality
  • The Uncertainty Principle

* Schrödinger’s Wave Equation

  • The Wave Equation
  • Physical Meaning of the Wave Function
  • Boundary Conditions

* Applications of Schrödinger’s Wave Equation

  • Electron in Free Space
  • The Infinite Potential Well
  • The Step Potential Function
  • The Potential Barrier

II. Introduction to the Quantum Theory of Solids

* Allowed and Forbidden Energy Bands

  • Formation of Energy Bands
  • The Kronig-Penney Model
  • The k-Space Diagram

* Electrical Conduction in Solids

  • The Energy Band and the Bond Model
  • Drift Current
  • Electron Effective Mass
  • Concept of the Hole
  • Metals, Insulators, and Semiconductors

III. Metal-Semiconductor and Semiconductor Heterojunctions

* Heterojunctions

  • Heterojunction Materials
  • Energy-Band Diagrams
  • Two-Dimensional Electron Gas
  • Equilibrium Electrostatics
  • Current-Voltage Characteristics

IV. Semiconductors: A General Introduction

* General Material Properties

* Crystal Structure

  • The Unit Cell Concept
  • Simple 3-D Unit Cells
  • Semiconductor Lattices
  • Miller Indices

* Crystal Growth

  • Obtaining Ultrapure Si
  • Single-Crystal Formation

* Summary

V. Carrier Modeling

* Semiconductor Models

* Carrier Properties

  • Charge
  • Effective Mass
  • Carrier Numbers in Intrinsic Material
  • Manipulation of Carrier Numbers – Doping
  • Carrier-Related Terminology

* State and Carrier Distributions

* Equilibrium Carrier Concentrations

  • Formulas for n and p
  • Alternative Expressions for n and p
  • ni and np Product
  • Charge Neutrality Relationship
  • Carrier Concentration Calculations
  • Determination of EF
  • Carrier Concentration Temperature Dependence

VI. Carrier Action

* Drift

* Diffusion

  • Definition – Visualization
  • Hot-Point Probe Measurement
  • Diffusion and Total Currents
    Diffusion Currents
    Total Currents
  • Relating Diffusion Coefficients/Mobilities
    Constancy of the Fermi Leve
    Current Flow Under Equilibrium Conditions
    Einstein Relationship

* Recombination – Generation

  • Definition – Visualization
    Band-to-Band Recombination
    R-G Center Recombination
    Auger Recombination
    Generation Process

* Equations of State

* Supplemental Concepts

VII. pn Junction Electrostatics

* Quantitative Electrostatic Relationships

  • Assumptions/Definitions
  • Step Junction with VA = 0
    Solution for p
    Solution for E
    Solution for V
    Solution for xn and xp
  • Step Junction with VA ≠ 0
  • Examination/Extrapolation of Results
  • Linearly Graded Junctions

VIII. pn Junction Diode: I-V Characteristics

* The Ideal Diode Equation

  • Qualitative Derivation
  • Quantitative Solution Strategy
    General Considerations
    Quasineutral Regional Considerations
    Depletion Region Considerations
    Boundary Conditions
    “Game Plan” Summary

* Derivation from the Ideal

  • Ideal Theory Versus Experiment
  • Reverse-Bias Breakdown
    Avalanching
    Zener Process
  • The R-G Current
  • VA -> Vbi High-Current Phenomena
    Series Resistance
    High-Level Injection

IX. BJT Fundamentals

* Electrostatics
* Introductory Operational Considerations
* Performance Parameters

  • Emitter Efficiency
  • Base Transport Factor
  • Common Base d.c. Current Gain
  • Common Emitter d.c. Current Gain

X. BJT Static Characteristics

* Ideal Transistor analysis

  • Solution Strategy
    Basic Assumptions
    Notation
    Diffusion Equations/Boundary Conditions
    Computational Relationships
  • General Solution (W Arbitrary)
    Emitter/Collector Region Solutions
    Base Region Solution
    Performance Parameters/Terminal Currents
  • Simplified Relationships
    ΔpB(x) in the Base
    Performance Parameters
  • Ebers – Moll Equations and Model

* Deviations from the Ideal

  • Ideal Theory/Experiment Comparison
  • Base Width Modulation
  • Punch-Through
  • Avalanche Multiplication and Breakdown
    Common Base
    Common Emitter
  • Geometrical effects
    Emitter Area ≠ Collector Area
    Series Resistances
    Current Crowding
  • Recombination – Generation Current
  • Graded Base
  • Figure of Merit

XI. MOS Fundamentals

* Ideal Structure Definition
* Electrostatics – Mostly Qualitative

  • Visualization Aids
    Energy Band Diagram
    Block Charge Diagrams
  • Effect of an Applied Bias
    General Observations
    Specific Biasing Regions

* Electrostatics – Quantitative Formulation

  • Semiconductor Electrostatics
    Preparatory Considerations
    Delta-Depletion Solution
  • Gate Voltage Relationship

* Capacitance – Voltage Characteristics

  • Theory and Analysis
    Qualitative Theory
    Delta – Depletion Analysis
  • Computations and Observations
    Exact Computations
    Practical Observations

XII. MOSFETs – The Essentials

* Qualitative Theory of Operation
* Quantitative ID – VD Relationships

XIII. Nonideal MOS

* Metal-Semiconductor Workfunction Difference
* Oxide Charges

  • General Information
  • Mobile Ions
  • The Fixed Charge
  • Interfacial Traps
  • Induced Charges
    Radiation Effects
    Negative-Bias Instability
  • ΔVG Summary

* MOSFET Threshold Considerations

  • VT Relationships
  • Threshold, Terminology, and Technology
  • Threshold Adjustment
  • Back Biasing
  • Threshold Summary

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