Manufacturing Technology Development
In the development of manufacturing technology, larger volumes of materials will be used than in research, so the potential for higher exposure rates increases. As in research, if the hazard of the nanomaterial is unknown or high, controls and procedures must be in place to limit exposure. When metrology exist, characterization of different work environments should be undertaken to validate the effectiveness of the engineering controls in limiting exposure. If the hazard of the nanomaterial is low, it may be possible to use less stringent engineering controls to limit exposure. Similarly, if the surface properties of a nanomaterial are changed during the manufacturing operation, this may change the hazard of the nanomaterial and this should be evaluated. The appropriate engineering controls monitors should be established and validated in the manufacturing technology development cycle for high volume manufacturing. Different precautions and control measures may be necessary when synthesizing, transfer and packaging, or characterizing nanomaterials, formulating dispersions, processing dispersions, or processing or assembling nanomaterial based solids or components, and accidental spills and releases.