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“Substitution and/or modification – This control measure is not yet widely used in the workplace for nanomaterials. However, nanomaterial modification has been shown to reduce the in vitro cytotoxicity of various nanomaterials, e.g., of fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNT), quantum dots and metal/metal oxide nanoparticles. This review (i.e., Safe Work Australia’s review of evidence on the effectiveness of workplace controls to prevent exposure to engineered nanomaterials) has identified that focus should be placed on potential applications of this approach for the workplace – opportunities to help protect the health of workers should be investigated.”1

1. Safe Work Australia, “Engineered Nanomaterials: Evidence on the Effectiveness of Workplace Controls to Prevent Exposure,” at 1-2 (Nov. 2009)(copyright Commonwealth of Australia reproduced by permission).