[Illinois] ECE 416 Impedance Based Sensors I

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Abstract

           In this lecture, we were introduced to the concept of a new sensor called the impedance-based Biosensor. Biomolecules are originally charged and therefore there is a need to determine the charge of the molecule before using it on a sensor. Isoelectric Points, the pH at which a protein has a net "0" Charge, can now be looked up and used to determine whether the protein in mind is positively or negatively charged. The charge of the biomolecule when attached to a transistor can impede the Biosensor and this impedance can be used to detect these molecules. The transistor is two electrodes (a source and a drain) that conducts a channel between them. A protein is "put" on top of the transistor and because negative charges repel, the proteins electrons will displace the electrons from the conductor and the make the conductor less conductive. Silicon Nanowire Transistor Biosensors will use this method in order to detect the molecules. However, the charges of the surrounding environment will cause a change in the charge,not the biomolecule, and impede the electrons. The Debye Length enables the sensor to ignore the changes within a bulk solution, but will block some of the results that the biomolecule is expected to produced. Nanopore Based Detection is then discussed in regard to DNA Sequencing. This method uses the protein to move charges and big biomolecules will block the channel. Through the current differences in the engineered pores, the different DNA base pairs can be seen. Mutations are made to the pore to alter the structure of the most narrow part of the barrel of the protein. This means that this sensor can read the sequence of DNA as it flows through the pore.

Bio

My research group is focused on the application of sub-wavelength optical phenomena and fabrication methods to the development of novel devices and instrumentation for the life sciences. The group is highly interdisciplinary, with expertise in the areas of microfabrication, nanotechnology, computer simulation, instrumentation, molecular biology, and cell biology. In particular, we are working on biosensors based upon photonic crystal concepts that can either be built from low-cost flexible plastic materials, or integrated with semiconductor-based active devices, such as light sources and photodetectors, for high performance integrated detection systems.

Using a combination of micrometer-scale and nanometer-scale fabrication tools, we are devising novel methods and materials for producing electro-optic devices with nanometer-scale features that can be scaled for low-cost manufacturing. Many of our techniques are geared for compatibility with flexible plastic materials, leading to applications such as low cost disposable sensors, wearable sensors, flexible electronics, and flexible displays. Because our structures manipulate light at a scale that is smaller than an optical wavelength, we rely on computer simulation tools such as Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) and Finite Difference Time Doman (FDTD) to model, design, and understand optical phenomena within photonic crystals and related devices.

In addition to fabricating devices, our group is also focused on the design, prototyping, and testing of biosensor instrumentation for high sensitivity, portability, and resolution. Advanced instruments enable high resolution imaging of biochemical and cellular interactions with the ability to monitor images of biochemical interactions as a function of time. Using the sensors and instrumentation, we are exploring new applications for optical biosensor technology including protein microarrays, biosensor/mass spectrometry systems, and microfluidics-based assays using nanoliter quantities of reagents. The methods and systems developed in the laboratory are applied in the fields of life science research, drug discovery, diagnostic testing, and environmental monitoring. -From Professor Cunningham's Faculty Profile

Cite this work

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

  • Brian Cunningham (2013), "[Illinois] ECE 416 Impedance Based Sensors I," https://nanohub.org/resources/17355.

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Time

Location

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL

Submitter

NanoBio Node, Obaid Sarvana, George Daley

Tags

[Illinois] ECE 416 Lecture 21: Impedance Based Sensors I
  • Impedance Based Biosensors 1. Impedance Based Biosensors 0
    00:00/00:00
  • Outline 2. Outline 68.177613320999072
    00:00/00:00
  • Basic Principles 3. Basic Principles 212.35162995594715
    00:00/00:00
  • Side Note: Proteins: + or -? 4. Side Note: Proteins: + or -? 431.87225941555346
    00:00/00:00
  • Concept for a Biosensor transistor 5. Concept for a Biosensor transi… 601.78189548497642
    00:00/00:00
  • Basic Principle 6. Basic Principle 837.58397055557316
    00:00/00:00
  • Concept for a Nanopore Biosensor 7. Concept for a Nanopore Biosens… 971.77954754576888
    00:00/00:00
  • Basic Principle 8. Basic Principle 1117.4929085890155
    00:00/00:00
  • Concept for Impedance-Based Cell Attachment Spectroscopy 9. Concept for Impedance-Based Ce… 1225.5279373036774
    00:00/00:00
  • Silicon Nanowire Transistor Biosensors 10. Silicon Nanowire Transistor Bi… 1264.9026874385254
    00:00/00:00
  • SiNW Biosensors Key concept: Debye Length 11. SiNW Biosensors Key concept: D… 1469.6335311101943
    00:00/00:00
  • SiNW Biosensors 12. SiNW Biosensors 1780.4351302471682
    00:00/00:00
  • SiNW Biosensors 13. SiNW Biosensors 1958.2911444617189
    00:00/00:00
  • Nanopore Based Detection 14. Nanopore Based Detection 2085.5224799314656
    00:00/00:00
  • Protein Nanopore 15. Protein Nanopore 2187.4861186026592
    00:00/00:00
  • Attaching a ss-DNA to the vestibule of the pore 16. Attaching a ss-DNA to the vest… 2290.9676047847192
    00:00/00:00
  • Engineered Pore for Differential Binding of AAAAA versus CCCCC 17. Engineered Pore for Differenti… 2425.1631817749153
    00:00/00:00
  • Engineered Pore for Differential Binding of Single Bases of DNA 18. Engineered Pore for Differenti… 2529.6268045816541
    00:00/00:00
  • Engineered Pore for Differential Binding of Single Bases of DNA 19. Engineered Pore for Differenti… 2555.8766380048864
    00:00/00:00
  • Oxford Nanopore Technologies 20. Oxford Nanopore Technologies 2613.46555827014
    00:00/00:00