High-Rate Processing and Advanced Emitter Structures for CIGS PV Module Manufacturing

By B. J. Stanbery

HelioVolt Corporation, Austin, TX

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Achieving both macroscopic homogeneity and nanoscale heterogeneity for non-stoichiometric multinary compounds is a critical challenge for the success of copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) photovoltaic cells. Co-evaporation yields world record performance, but is also a high-temperature vacuum process that is difficult to scale. Here, we consider reactive transfer processing (RTP), which has been developed by Heliovolt as an alternative. In this process, distinct compound precursor layers are independently deposited on a substrate at low temperature, and then reacted into a high- performance polycrystalline CIGS morphology with unique control of the morphology ranging from the conventional planar to nanostructures which both trap light and enable 3-dimensional carrier collection. Areas of current research interest include conformal graded-composition emitter structures, increasing open-circuit voltage, process yield, and long-term reliability.


B.J. Stanbery Dr. B.J. Stanbery is chief science officer for HelioVolt Corporation. His career spans more than 30 years in the solar industry. He is an expert in the business and science of photovoltaics (PV). In 2008, his innovation of inkjet printing of CIGS, won a prestigious 2008 R&D 100 Award. He founded HelioVolt to develop and commercialize a revolutionary FASST® process for manufacturing CIGS thin-film PV that is now covered by 11 patents issued, 9 additional patent applications, and 83 international extensions. Prior to founding HelioVolt, Dr. Stanbery managed Boeing's terrestrial PV program. During that 17-year tenure his team manufactured and deployed PV for spacecraft, and in 1990 achieved the world record in multi-junction thin-film PV conversion efficiency. Dr. Stanbery completed his Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering in 2001 at the University of Florida, having previously obtained an M.S. in Physics from the University of Washington and B.S. in both Physics and Mathematics from the University of Texas. Dr. Stanbery also serves on the Board of the Texas Renewable Energy Association (TREIA), and as Chairman of the Board of the Texas Foundation for Innovative Communities (TFIC).

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Researchers should cite this work as follows:

  • B. J. Stanbery (2013), "High-Rate Processing and Advanced Emitter Structures for CIGS PV Module Manufacturing," https://nanohub.org/resources/18905.

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