Quantum computers would represent an exponential increase in computing
power...if they can be built. This tutorial describes the theoretical
background to quantum computing, its potential for several specific
applications, and the demanding challenges facing practical
implementation. The field currently suffers from a strange imbalance
with theoretical advances far outstripping experimental demonstration.
The field is poised for a breakthrough that would make quantum circuits
experimentally "accessible", as opposed to the million dollar price tags
attached to most current implementations.
Researchers should cite this work as follows: