> MOL` bjbj 8.DDDDDDDX###8$8$$X2h$~$$$$$$$/ / / /d/l0l\2$u4h6v2D$$$$$2DD$$2'''$D$D$/'$/''6-DD.$\$P`k#L%z./202.@S7&rS78.S7D.H$$'$$$$$22'X$$$2$$$$XX`#XX`#XXXDDDDDDHomework 7
EE 606 Spring 2005
The following problem addresses the difference between Depletion Approximation vs. Exact Solution of the PN Junction. To analyze a semiconductor device, we must solve the continuity equations for electrons and holes, the drift-diffusion equations, which describe how carriers move in response to an electric field, along with Poissons equation because when they move, they change the electric field. In general, these equations are too complex to solve analytically (the equilibrium problem is solved in problem 5.14), so we resort to approximations such as the well-known and frequently-used depletion approximation. The depletion approximation is extremely useful, when it is valid, so it is important to understand its limitations. In this exercise, you will compare the results of depletion approximation analyses of PN junctions with the exact solution obtained by solving the equations of state directly by numerical simulation using the nanoHUB.
1) A Si step junction maintained at room temperature under equilibrium conditions has a p-side doping density of NA = 2 x 1015 /cm3 and an n-side doping of ND = 1015/cm3, Use the depletion approximation to compute:
(a) Vbi
(b) The depletion layer boundaries, xp, xn, and the depletion width, W
(c) The electric field at x = 0
(d) The electrostatic potential at x = 0
(e) Make a sketches that are roughly to scale of the charge density, electric field, and electrostatic potential as a function of position.
(This is homework problem 5.4 from R.F. Pierret, Semiconductor Device Fundamentals, Addison-Wesley, 1996.)
2) Repeat problem 1), still using the depletion approximation, but take NA = 1017/cm3 to be the p-side doping. Briefly compare the results to those of problem 1).
Check the results of your depletion approximation results by comparing them against numerical simulations as follows.
Connect to HYPERLINK "http://www.nanohub.org" www.nanohub.org, go to the Tool Index and start the PN Junction Lab. Youll have to log in before you can launch the tool, and you may need to register for a free account if you dont already have one.
3) Simulate the PN junction described in problem 1) above. Make sure the P and N regions are larger than the depletion boundaries xp and xn, which you calculated earlier. (The charge density and the electric field should be zero in the contact regions.) Using the resulting plots, answer the following questions (you may write your answers directly on the plots)
3a) Identify the four lines on the energy band plot.
3b) Use the potential vs. position plot to determine the built-in potential of the PN junction. Compare your answer to the depletion approximation result. (Remember that potential always have an arbitrary reference, so dont be confused by the fact that the potential is not zero on one side of the junction.)
3c) On the electric field vs. position plot, superimpose the depletion approximation result and discuss the differences.
3d) On the doping, electron, and hole density vs. position plot, superimpose the depletion approximation result and discuss the differences.
3e) On the doping, electron, and hole density vs. position plot, identify the depletion region edges as computed by the depletion approximation and estimate the width of the depletion layer on the N and P sides.
3f) Use the expressions for exact analytical solution (problem 5.14 in the textbook) to compute the electric field and the charge densities for this problem using a MATLAB routine. How do these results compare with those using the nanoHUB? Do you expect them to be exactly the same?
4) Simulate the PN junction described in problem 2) above.
4a) Use the potential vs. position plot to determine the built-in potential of the PN junction. Compare your answer to the depletion approximation result.
4b) On the electric field vs. position plot, superimpose the depletion approximation result and discuss the differences.
4c) On the doping, electron, and hole density vs. position plot, superimpose the depletion approximation result and discuss the differences.
4d) On the doping, electron, and hole density vs. position plot, identify the depletion region edges as computed by the depletion approximation.
4f) Again, use the expressions for exact analytical solution (problem 5.14 in the textbook) to compute the electric field and the charge densities for this problem using a MATLAB routine. How do these results compare with those using nanoHUB? Do you expect them to be exactly the same?
5) Discuss and explain your results. You should find that the depletion approximation works well for the symmetrical PN junction, except for some small differences. You will find, however, that for the asymmetrical PN junction, the depletion approximation produces significant errors. EXPLAIN why the depletion approximation breaks down for the asymmetrical PN junction. HINT: To answer this question, it is useful to examine the energy band plot, the carrier density plot, and the charge density plot. The charge density plot will be clearer if you plot it on a log axis. To do this within the nanoHUBs PN Junction Lab, click on the y-axis and select Scale: Logarithmic on the pop-up box.
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