VEDA 2.0 (Virtual Environment for Dynamic AFM)

By John Melcher1, Daniel Kiracofe, Shuiqing Hu1, Arvind Raman1

1. Purdue University

VEDA is a suite of tools for simulating many different aspects of dynamic AFM under a range of operating modes and environments.

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Archive Version 2.0.32
Published on 22 May 2012 All versions

doi:10.4231/D38W3821D cite this



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VEDA is a suite of tools for simulating many different aspects of dynamic AFM under a range of operating modes and environments. VEDA consists of four tools: Dynamic Approach Curves tool: accurately simulates an AFM cantilever excited at resonance and brought towards a sample surface. Two version are available: basic and advanced. The basic tool simulates oscillations of a single eigenmode of the cantilever, while the advanced tool simulates multiple eigenmodes and multiple excitation frequencies. Amplitude Modulated Scanning tool:simulates amplitude modulated scans over specified geometric features with heterogeneous material properties. This tool accurately simulates surface scans performed by an AFM probe controlled by amplitude modulation. Both basic and advanced versions of this tool are also available, corresponding to the same feature sets as the Dynamic Approach Curves tools. F-Z Curves tool: simulates the response of an undriven microcantilever approaching or retracting from a sample. This tool is useful for observing bi-stabilities in equilibria and the related ``snap-in'' and ``pull-off'' phenomena Frequency Sweep tool: simulates the nonlinear response of a driven cantilever swept across resonance. Simulations of single or multiple eigenmodes are possible. All of the VEDA tools include a variety of different tip-sample interaction models including DMT, JKR, and Hertz, as well as capillary and viscoelastic forces.


Major contributions by: Steven Douglas Johnson (JKR interaction forces, interface design)

Sponsored by

  • Network for Computational Nanotechnology (NCN)
  • National Science Foundation (NSF)


S. Basak and A. Raman, Applied Physics Letters 91, 064107 (2007).

O. Sahin et al., Nature Nanotechnology 2, 507 (2007).

J. Melcher, X. Xu, A. Raman, Applied Physics Letters 93, 093111 (2008).

R. Proksch, Applied Physics Letters 89, 113121 (2006).

J.R. Lozano et al., Physical Review Letters 1, (2008).

X. Xu et al., Physical Review Letters, (in press 2009).


D. Kiracofe, J. Melcher & A. Raman, "Gaining insight into the physics of dynamic atomic force microscopy in complex environments using the VEDA simulator" Review of Scientific Instruments, 83, 013702 (2012). J. Melcher, S. Hu, & A. Raman, "VEDA: A web-based virtual environment for dynamic atomic force microscopy" Review of Scientific Instruments 79, 061301 (2008).

Cite this work

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

  • John Melcher; Daniel Kiracofe; Shuiqing Hu; Arvind Raman (2008), "VEDA 2.0 (Virtual Environment for Dynamic AFM)," (DOI: 10.21981/D38W3821D).

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