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On June 30, 1948, AT&T Bell Labs unveiled the transitor to the world, creating a spark of explosive economic growth that would lead into the Information Age. William Shockley led a team of researchers, including Walter Brattain and John Bardeen, who invented the device. Like the existing triode vacuum tube device, the transistor could amplify signals and switch currents on and off, but the transistor was smaller, cheaper, and more efficient. Moreover, it could be integrated with millions of other transistors onto a single chip, creating the integrated circuit at the heart of modern computers.
Today, most transistors are being manufactured with a minimum feature size of 60-90nm--roughly 200-300 atoms. As the push continues to make devices even smaller, researchers must account for quantum mechanical effects in the device behavior. With fewer and fewer atoms, the positions of impurities and other irregularities begin to matter, and device reliability becomes an issue. So rather than shrink existing devices, many researchers are working on entirely new devices, based on carbon nanotubes, spintronics,
molecular conduction, and other nanotechnologies.
Learn more about transistors from the many resources on this site, listed below. Use our simulation tools to simulate performance characteristics for your own devices.
BJT Lab: h-Parameters Calculation Exercise
07 Jul 2009 | Contributor(s):: Dragica Vasileska, Gerhard Klimeck
In this exercise students are required to obtain the appropriate input and output parameters to extract the small signal h-parameters in common-base configuration. Afterwards they need to derive the h-parameters in common-emitter configuration in terms of the h-parameters in the common base...
Drift-Diffusion Modeling and Numerical Implementation Details
01 Jun 2010 | Contributor(s):: Dragica Vasileska
This tutorial describes the constitutive equations for the drift-diffusion model and implementation details such as discretization and numerical solution of the algebraic equations that result from the finite difference discretization of the Poisson and the continuity...
From Semi-Classical to Quantum Transport Modeling: Particle-Based Device Simulations
10 Aug 2009 | Contributor(s):: Dragica Vasileska
This set of powerpoint slides series provides insight on what are the tools available for modeling devices that behave either classically or quantum-mechanically. An in-depth description is provided to the approaches with emphasis on the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. Conclusions...
From Semi-Classical to Quantum Transport Modeling: Quantum Corrections to Semiclassical Approaches
From Semi-Classical to Quantum Transport Modeling: Quantum Transport - Recursive Green's function method, CBR approach and Atomistic
Illinois ECE 440: Diffusion and Energy Band Diagram Homework
28 Jan 2010 | | Contributor(s):: Mohamed Mohamed
This homework covers Diffusion of Carriers, Built-in Fields and Metal semiconductor junctions.
Illinois ECE 440: MOS Capacitor Homework
This homework covers Threshold Voltage, MOS Band Diagram, and MOS Capacitance-Voltage Analysis.
Illinois ECE 440: Carrier Generation and Recombination and photo-conductivity Homework
This homework covers Optical Absorption, Excess Carrier Concentration, Steady State Carrier Generation, and Quasi-Fermi Levels.
Illinois ECE 440: Charge Carrier in Bulk Semiconductors Homework
This homework covers the effects of doping on carrier concentration in bulk silicon.
Illinois ECE 440: Introduction to Carrier Drift and Mobility Homework
This homework covers Carrier Transport in Semiconductors subjected to an electric field.
Illinois ECE 440: Introduction to Crystal Properties Homework
This homework Assignment covers basic introduction to Material Properties and Crystal Structures.
Illinois ECE 440: MOS Field-Effect Transistor Homework
This homework covers Output Characteristics and Mobility Model of MOSFETs.
Illinois ECE 440: Photodiodes Homework
This homework covers Current and Voltage in an Illuminated Junction, Solar Cells, and PN Junction Simulation.
Illinois ECE 440: PN Junction Homework
This homework covers P-N junctions in equilibrium, contact potential, and Space Charge at a Junction.
MOSCAP: Theoretical Exercise - High Frequency CV Curves
07 Jul 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Dragica Vasileska
One is required to sketch the high frequency CV curves for different MOS Capacitors configurations.
Piece-Wise Constant Potential Barriers Tool: First-Time User Guide
01 Jun 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Samarth Agarwal, Gerhard Klimeck
This supporting document for the Piece-Wise Constant Potential Barriers Tool serves as a first-time user guide. Some basic ideas about quantum mechanical tunneling are introduced in addition to how device geometry influences tunneling probability. The transfer matrix and tight-binding...
Resonant Tunneling Diode Simulation with NEGF: First-Time User Guide
This first-time user guide for Resonant Tunneling Diode Simulation with NEGF provides some fundamental concepts regarding RTDs along with details on how device geometry and simulation parameters influence current and charge distribution inside the device.NCN@Purdue
Self-Heating Effects in Nano-Scale Devices. What do we know so far ...
10 Aug 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Dragica Vasileska, Stephen M. Goodnick
This presentation contains the research findings related to self-heating effects in nano-scale devices in silicon on insulator devices obtained at Arizona State University. Different device technologies and different device geometries are being examined. Details of the theoretical model used in...
Tutorial for PADRE Based Simulation Tools
10 Aug 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Dragica Vasileska, Gerhard Klimeck
This tutorial is intended for first time and medium level users of PADRE-based simulation modules installed on the nanohub. It gives clear overview on the capabilities of each tool with emphasis to most important effects occuring in nano-scale devices.