On June 30, 1948, AT&T Bell Labs unveiled the transitor to the world, creating a spark of explosive economic growth that would lead into the Information Age. William Shockley led a team of researchers, including Walter Brattain and John Bardeen, who invented the device. Like the existing triode vacuum tube device, the transistor could amplify signals and switch currents on and off, but the transistor was smaller, cheaper, and more efficient. Moreover, it could be integrated with millions of other transistors onto a single chip, creating the integrated circuit at the heart of modern computers.
Today, most transistors are being manufactured with a minimum feature size of 60-90nm--roughly 200-300 atoms. As the push continues to make devices even smaller, researchers must account for quantum mechanical effects in the device behavior. With fewer and fewer atoms, the positions of impurities and other irregularities begin to matter, and device reliability becomes an issue. So rather than shrink existing devices, many researchers are working on entirely new devices, based on carbon nanotubes, spintronics,
molecular conduction, and other nanotechnologies.
Learn more about transistors from the many resources on this site, listed below. Use our simulation tools to simulate performance characteristics for your own devices.
Lecture 6: 3D Nets in a 3D World: Bulk Heterostructure Solar Cells
27 Oct 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad A. Alam
Outline:Introduction: definitions and review
Reaction diffusion in fractal volumesCarrier transport in BH solar cellsAll phase transitions are not fractalConclusions
Lecture 5: 2D Nets in a 3D World: Basics of Nanobiosensors and Fractal Antennae
Outline:Background: A different type of transport problem
Example: Classical biosensorsFractal dimension and cantor transformExample: fractal nanobiosensors Conclusions
Appendix: Transparent Electrodes and Antenna
Illinois ECE 440 Solid State Electronic Devices, Lecture 18: P-N Diode Electrostatics
22 Oct 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Eric Pop
Last time, we talked about p-n junction built-in voltage V¬0.Today: more about p-n electrostatics.
Illinois ECE 440 Solid State Electronic Devices, Lecture 16-17: Diffusion
So far:•Energy bands, Doping, Fermi levels•Drift (~n*v), diffusion (~dn/dx)•Einstein relationship (D/μ = kT/q)•“Boring” semiconductor resistors (either n- or p-type)•Majority/minority carriers with illuminationToday, our first “useful” device:•The P-N junction diode in equilibrium (external...
Illinois ECE 440 Solid State Electronic Devices, Lecture 14-15: Diffusion with Recombination
08 Oct 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Eric Pop
•Diffusion with recombination•The diffusion length (distance until they recombine)
Illinois ECE 440 Solid State Electronic Devices, Lecture 13: Diffusion
02 Oct 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Eric Pop
ECE 440: Lecture 13Diffusion Current
Illinois ECE 440 Solid State Electronic Devices, Lecture 12: Quasi-Fermi Levels; Photoconductivity
out of 5 stars
05 Jan 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Eric Pop
Illinois ECE 440 Solid State Electronic Devices, Lecture 10-11: Optical Absorption and Direct Recombination
30 Sep 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Eric Pop
Illinois ECE 440 Solid State Electronic Devices, Lectures 8 and 9: Drift Mobility
02 Jan 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Eric Pop
Carrier Mobility and DriftECE 440: Lectures 8-9Carrier Mobility and DriftLet’s recap the 5-6 major concepts so far: Memorize a few things, but recognize many.(why? semiconductors require lots of approximations)Why all the fuss about the abstract concept of EF?Consider (for example) joining an...
Lecture 5: NEGF Simulation of Graphene Nanodevices
21 Sep 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Supriyo Datta
2009 NCN@Purdue Summer School: Electronics from the Bottom Up
09 Jul 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Supriyo Datta, Mark Lundstrom, Muhammad A. Alam, Joerg Appenzeller
The school will consist of two lectures in the morning on the Nanostructured Electronic Devices: Percolation and Reliability and an afternoon lecture on Graphene Physics and Devices. A hands on laboratory session will be available in the afternoons.
Colloquium on Graphene Physics and Devices
29 Jul 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Joerg Appenzeller, Supriyo Datta, Mark Lundstrom
This short course introduces students to graphene as a fascinating research topic as well as to develop their skill in problem solving using the tools and techniques of electronics from the bottom up.
Lecture 1: Percolation and Reliability of Electronic Devices
29 Jul 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Muhammad A. Alam
Nanostructured Electronic Devices: Percolation and Reliability
In this series of lectures introduces a simple theoretical framework for treating randomness and variability in emerging nanostructured electronic devices for wide ranging applications – all within an unified framework of spatial and temporal percolation. The problems considered involve...
Katie M Smith
Self-Heating Effects in Nano-Scale Devices. What do we know so far ...
08 Aug 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Dragica Vasileska, Stephen M. Goodnick
This presentation contains the research findings related to self-heating effects in nano-scale devices in silicon on insulator devices obtained at Arizona State University. Different device technologies and different device geometries are being examined. Details of the theoretical model used in...
From Semi-Classical to Quantum Transport Modeling
09 Aug 2009 | | Contributor(s):: Dragica Vasileska
This set of powerpoint slides series provides insight on what are the tools available for modeling devices that behave either classically or quantum-mechanically. An in-depth description is provided to the approaches with emphasis on the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. Conclusions...
From Semi-Classical to Quantum Transport Modeling: Particle-Based Device Simulations
From Semi-Classical to Quantum Transport Modeling: Quantum Corrections to Semiclassical Approaches
From Semi-Classical to Quantum Transport Modeling: Quantum Transport - Recursive Green's function method, CBR approach and Atomistic