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ABACUS—Introduction to Semiconductor Devices

by Gerhard Klimeck, Dragica Vasileska

Version 28
by Gerhard Klimeck
Version 29
by Gerhard Klimeck

Deletions or items before changed

Additions or items after changed

1 [[Image(abacus_ps_comp_2.gif, 600)]]
2
3 == Introduction to Semiconductor Devices with ABACUS==
4
5 When we hear the words, semiconductor device, we may think first of the transistors in PCs or video game consoles, but transistors are the basic component in all of the electronic devices we use in our daily lives. Electronic systems are built from components such as transistors, capacitors, wires and other electronic devices such as light emitting diodes and semiconductor lasers. These components are typically integrated into a single chip made of a semiconductor material.
6
7 Almost every Electrical Engineering department teaches the fundamental concepts of semiconductor devices. These concepts typically include lattices, crystal structure, bandstructure, band models, carrier distributions, drift, diffusion, pn junctions, solar cells,light-emitting diodes, bipolar junction transistors (BJT), metal-oxide semiconductor capacitors (MOS-cap), and multi-acronym-device field effect transistors (mad-FETs).
8
9 Advanced courses go more deeply into semiconductor theory, device physics, fabrication processes, and advanced and special purpose devices, such as heterostructure devices, power devices, and optoelectronic devices.
10
11 This nanoHUB "topic page" provides an easy access to selected nanoHUB Semiconductor Device Education Material that is openly accessible and usable by everyone around the world.
12
13 We invite you to participate in this open source, interactive educational initiative:
14
15 * [http://www.nanohub.org/contribute/ Contribute your content] by uploading it to the nanoHUB. (See "Contribute Content") on the nanoHUB mainpage.
16 * Provide feedback for the items you use on the nanoHUB through the review system. (Please be explicit and provide constructive feedback.)
17 * Let us know when things do not work for you - file a ticket through the nanoHUB "Help" feature on every page
18 * Finally, let us know what you are doing and [http://www.nanohub.org/feedback/suggestions/ your suggestions] improving the nanoHUB by using the "Feedback" section, which you can find under "[http://www.nanohub.org/support/ Support]"
19
20 Thank you for using the nanoHUB, and be sure to [http://www.nanohub.org/feedback/success_story/ share your nanoHUB success stories] with us. We like to hear from you, and our sponsors need to know that the nanoHUB is having impact.
21
22
23 === Crystal Structures, Lattices ===
24
25
26 ==== [/resources/5065 Crystal Viewer in ABACUS] ====
27
28 [[Image(/site/resources/tools/crystal_viewer/si.jpg, 120 class=align-left)]] The [/resources/5065 Crystal Viewer in ABACUS] tool enables the interactive visualization different Bravais lattices, and crystal planes, and materials (diamond, Si, !InAs, !GaAs, graphene, buckyball). It is supported by homework assignment in
29 [/site/resources/2008/01/03815/crystal_hw1.doc MS Word] and [/site/resources/2008/01/03816/crystal_hw1.pdf Adobe PDF] format.
30
31 [[Resource(5144)]]
32
33
34 === Band Models / Band Structure ===
35 +
36 +
==== [/tools/pcpbt Piece-Wise Constant Potential Barriers Lab in ABACUS] ====
37
38 ==== [/resources/5065 Periodic Potential Lab in ABACUS] ====
39
40 [[Image(/site/resources/tools/kronig_penney/allowed_bands_step_well.png, 120 class=align-left)]] The [/resources/5065 Periodic Potential Lab in ABACUS] solves the time independent Schroedinger Equation in a 1-D spatial potential variation. Rectangular, triangular, parabolic (harmonic), and Coulomb potential confinements can be considered. The user can determine energetic and spatial details of the potential profiles, compute the allowed and forbidden bands, plot the bands in a compact and an expanded zone, and compare the results against a simple effective mass parabolic band. Transmission is also calculated through the well for the given energy range.
41
42 Exercises:
43
44 * [[Resource(4851)]]
45
46 [[Div(start, class=clear)]][[Div(end)]]
47
48 ==== [/resources/5065 Bandstructure Lab in ABACUS] ====
49
50 [[Image(/site/resources/tools/bandstrlab/bandstrlab.gif, 120 class=align-right)]] The [/resources/5065 Bandstructure Lab in ABACUS] enables the study of bulk dispersion relationships of Si, !GaAs, !InAs. The users can apply tensile and compressive strain and observe the variation in the bandstructure, bandgaps, and effective masses. Advanced users can study bandstructure effects in ultra-scaled (thin body) quantum wells, and nanowires of different cross sections. Bandstructure Lab uses the ''sp3s*d5'' tight binding method to compute E(k) for bulk, planar, and nanowire semiconductors.
51
52 Exercises:
53
54 * [[Resource(5201)]]
55
56 * [[Resource(5031)]]
57
58 * [[Resource(4890)]]
59
60
61 [[Div(start, class=clear)]][[Div(end)]]
62
63
64 ==== [/resources/5065 StrainBands in ABACUS] ====
65
66 [[Image(/site/resources/tools/strainbands/strainbands2.png, 120 class=align-left)]] [/resources/5065 StrainBands in ABACUS] uses first-principles density functional theory within the local density approximation and ultrasoft pseudopotentals to compute and visualize density of states, E(k), charge densities, and Wannier functions for bulk semiconductors. Using this tool, you can study and learn about the bandstructures of bulk semiconductors for various materials under hydrostatic pressure and under strain conditions. Physical parameters such as the bandgap and effective mass can also be obtained from the computed E(k). We note here that the bandgaps obtained with DFT-LDA are underestimated, by about a factor of two for some semiconductors (including Si and GaAs), as is well known.
67
68 Exercises:
69
70 * [[Resource(4880)]]
71
72 [[Div(start, class=clear)]][[Div(end)]]
73
74
75 === Carrier Distributions ===
76
77 [[Image(/site/resources/2008/01/03885/cd_pg1.jpg, 120 class=align-right)]] The [/resources/5065 Carrier Statistics Lab in ABACUS] demonstrates electron and hole density distributions based on the Fermi-Dirac and Maxwell Boltzmann equations. This tool shows the dependence of carrier density, density of states and occupation factor on temperature and fermi level. User can choose between doped and undoped semi-conductors. Silicon, Germanium, and GaAs can be studied as a function of doping or Fermi level, and temperature. It is supported by a [/resources/3878/ homework assignment] in which Students are asked to explore the differences between Fermi-Dirac and Maxwell-Boltzmann distributions, compute electron and hole concentrations, study temperature dependences, and study freeze-out.
78
79 Exercises:
80
81 * [[Resource(5146)]]
82
83 * [[Resource(4892)]]
84
85 * [[Resource(5197)]]
86
87
88 === Bulk Semiconductors - Drift Diffusion ===
89
90 [[Image(/site/resources/tools/semi/excess_carrier_profile_light_top.png, 120 class=align-right)]] The [/resources/5065 Drift Diffusion Lab in ABACUS] enables a user to understand the basic concepts of DRIFT and DIFFUSION of carriers inside a semiconductor slab using different kinds of experiments. Experiments like shining light on the semiconductor, applying bias and both can be performed. This tool provides important information about carrier densities, transient and steady state currents, fermi-levels and electrostatic potentials. It is supported by two related homework assignments [/resources/4191/ #1] and [/resources/4188/ #2] in which Students are asked to explore the concepts of drift, diffusion, quasi Fermi levels, and the response to light.
91
92 Exercises:
93
94 * [[Resource(5181)]]
95
96
97 === Semiconductor Process Modeling ===
98
99 Semiconductor process modeling is a vast field in which several commercial products are available and in use for production in industry and to some extent in education. nanoHUB is serving a few applications that are primarily geared towards education. The four tools entitled 'Process Lab ...'[/tools/abacus/ Oxidation], [/tools/abacus/ Oxidation Flux], [/tools/abacus/ Concentration Dependent Diffusion], and [/tools/abacus/ Point Defect Coupled Diffusion] are all educational front-ends to the general [/tools/abacus Prophet tool in ABACUS].
100
101 ==== [/tools/abacus Process Oxidation Lab in ABACUS] ====
102
103 [[Image(/site/resources/tools/prolabox/prolabox.gif, 120 class=align-right)]] The [/tools/abacus/ Oxidation Lab in ABACUS] simulates the oxidation process in integrated circuit fabrication. It is supported by a [/site/resources/2006/10/01904/oxidation.pdf supplemental document] that describes the theory and potential experiments that can be conducted.
104
105 ==== [/tools/abacus Process Oxidation Flux Lab in ABACUS] ====
106
107 [[Image(/site/resources/tools/prolaboxflux/prolaboxflux.gif, 120 class=align-right)]] The [/tools/abacus Process Oxidation Flux Lab in ABACUS] simulates the oxidation flux in the oxide growth process in integrated circuit fabrication. It is supported by a [/site/resources/2006/10/01905/oxidationflux.pdf supplemental document] that describes the theory and potential experiments that can be conducted.
108
109 ==== [/tools/abacus Concentration Dependent Diffusion Lab in ABACUS] ====
110
111 [[Image(/site/resources/tools/prolabcdd/prolabcdd.gif, 120 class=align-right)]] The [/tools/abacus Concentration Dependent Diffusion Lab in ABACUS] simulates the oxidation flux in the oxide growth process in integrated circuit fabrication.
112
113 ==== [/tools/abacus/ Point Defect Coupled Diffusion Lab in ABACUS] ====
114
115 [[Image(/site/resources/tools/prolabdcd/prolabdcd.gif, 120 class=align-right)]] The [/tools/abacus/ Point Defect Coupled Diffusion Lab in ABACUS] the point-defect-coupled diffusion process in integrated circuit fabrication.
116
117 ==== [/tools/abacus/ PROPHET in ABACUS] ====
118
119 [[Image(/site/resources/tools/prophet/prophet.jpg, 120 class=align-left)]] [/tools/abacus/ PROPHET in ABACUS] was originally developed for semiconductor process simulation. Device simulation capabilities are currently under development. PROPHET solves sets of partial differential equations in one, two, or three spatial dimensions. All model coefficients and material parameters are contained in a database library which can be modified or added to by the user. Even the equations to be solved can be specified by the end user. It is supported by an extensive set of [/site/resources/tools/prophet/doc/guide.html User Guide] pages and a seminar on [/resources/973/ Nano-Scale Device Simulations Using PROPHET].
120
121 ==== [[Resource(tsuprem4, nolink)]] ====
122
123 [[Image(/site/resources/tools/tsuprem4/tsuprem2.png, 120 class=align-right)]] [[Resource(tsuprem4)]] simulates the processing steps used in the manufacture of silicon integrated circuits and discrete devices. The types of processing steps modeled by the current version of the program include ion implantation, inert ambient drive-in, silicon and polysilicon oxidation and silicidation, epitaxial growth, and low temperature deposition and etching of various materials.
124
125 {{{
126 #!html
127 Because of the way TSUPREM-4 is licensed, it is available only to users on the West Lafayette campus of Purdue University. Note that you must use a network connection on campus, or else you will get an 'access denied' message.
128 }}}
129
130 === PN Junctions ===
131
132 [[Image(/site/resources/tools/pntoy/pnjunction.gif, 120 class=align-left)]] [/tools/abacus/ PN-Junction Lab in ABACUS]: Everything you need to explore and teach the basic concepts of P-N junction devices. Edit the doping concentrations, change the materials, tweak minority carrier lifetimes, and modify the ambient temperature. Then, see the effects in the energy band diagram, carrier densities, net charge distribution, I/V characteristic, etc.
133
134 There is a significant set of associated resources available for this tool.
135 * a [/site/resources/tools/pntoy/pnjunction.swf demo of this tool]
136 * a [/resources/980/ Primer on Semiconductor Device Simulation].
137 * a Learning Module entitled [/resources/68/ PN Junction Theory and Modeling] which walks students through the PN junction theory and let's them verify concepts through on-line simulation.
138 * Homework assignment on the [/resources/893/ depletion approximation (on the undergraduate level)]
139 * Homework assignment on the [/resources/932/ depletion approximation (on the undergraduate level)]
140
141 Exercises:
142
143 * [[Resource(4894)]]
144
145 * [[Resource(4896)]]
146
147 * [[Resource(4898)]]
148
149 * [[Resource(5177)]]
150
151 * [[Resource(5179)]]
152
153 * [[Resource(5183)]]
154
155
156 === Solar Cells ===
157
158 [[Image(/site/resources/tools/adept/adept2.png, 120 class=align-left)]] [/tools/abacus/ ADEPT in ABACUS] is a research-oriented tool that enables the study of solar cells for various material systems. A [/site/resources/2007/05/02659/adoc.pdf Reference Manual] and a [/site/resources/2007/05/02660/adept_heterostruct_tutorial.pdf ADEPT Heterostructure Tutorial] are available. The interface is not a simple point-and-click interface as for example the PN junction lab, but simulation commands are entered in a command-like fashion.
159
160 [[Div(start, class=clear)]][[Div(end)]]
161
162 === Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT) ===
163
164 [[Image(/site/resources/tools/bjt/5_BJTenergy_nonequil.gif, 120 class=align-left)]] The [/tools/abacus/ Bipolar Junction Lab in ABACUS] allows Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) simulation using a 2D mesh. It allows user to simulate npn or pnp type of device. Users can specify the Emitter, Base and Collector region depths and doping densities. Also the material and minority carrier lifetimes can be specified by the user. It is supported by a [/resources/4185/ homework assignment] in which Students are asked to find the emitter efficiency, the base transport factor, current gains, and the Early voltage. Also a qualitative discussion is requested.
165
166 [[Div(start, class=clear)]][[Div(end)]]
167
168 Exercises:
169
170 * [[Resource(5199)]]
171
172 * [[Resource(5193)]]
173
174 * [[Resource(5083)]]
175
176
177 === MOS Capacitors ===
178
179 ==== [/tools/abacus/ MOScap Tool in ABACUS] ====
180
181 [[Image(/site/resources/tools/moscap/moscap.jpg, 120 class=align-left)]] The [/tools/abacus/ MOScap Tool in ABACUS] tool enables a semi-classical analysis of MOS Capacitors. Simulates the capacitance of bulk and dual gate capacitors for a variety of different device sizes, geometries, temperature and doping profiles.
182
183 [[Div(start, class=clear)]][[Div(end)]]
184
185 Exercises:
186
187 * [[Resource(4855)]]
188
189 * [[Resource(5185)]]
190
191 * [[Resource(5187)]]
192
193 * [[Resource(5189)]]
194
195 * [[Resource(5087)]]
196
197
198 ==== [/tools/abacus/ Schred Tool in ABACUS] ====
199
200 [[Image(/images/tool/schred/schred.jpg, 120 class=align-right)]] [/tools/abacus/ Schred Tool in ABACUS] calculates the envelope wavefunctions and the corresponding bound-state energies in a typical MOS (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor) or SOS (Semiconductor-Oxide-Semiconductor) structure and a typical SOI structure by solving self-consistently the one-dimensional (1D) Poisson equation and the 1D Schrodinger equation.
201
202 [[Div(start, class=clear)]][[Div(end)]]
203
204 Exercises:
205
206 * [[Resource(4900)]]
207
208 * [[Resource(4902)]]
209
210 * [[Resource(4904)]]
211
212 * [[Resource(4794)]]
213
214 * [[Resource(4796)]]
215
216
217 === MOSFET / mad-FET ===
218
219 The Field-Effect-Transistor has been proposed and implement in many physical systems, materials, and geometries. A multitude of acronyms have developed around these concepts. The "Many-Acronym-Device-FET" or "madFET" was born.
220
221 ==== [/tools/abacus/ MOSfet Lab in ABACUS] ====
222
223 [[Image(/site/resources/tools/mosfet/mosfet.jpg, 120 class=align-right)]] The [/tools/abacus/ MOSfet Lab in ABACUS] tool enables a semi-classical analysis of current-voltage characteristics for bulk and SOI Field Effect Transistors (FETs) for a variety of different device sizes, geometries, temperature and doping profiles.
224
225 Exercises:
226
227 * [[Resource(4906)]]
228
229 * [[Resource(5104)]]
230
231 * [[Resource(5191)]]
232
233 * [[Resource(5085)]]
234
235
236 ==== [/tools/abacus/ nanoMOS in ABACUS] ====
237
238 [[Image(/site/resources/tools/nanomos/nanomos.gif, 120 class=align-left)]] The [/tools/abacus/ nanoMOS tool in ABACUS] enables a 2D simulation for thin body MOSFETs, with transport models ranging from drift-diffusion to quantum diffusive for a variety of different device sizes, geometries, temperature and doping profiles.
239
240 ==== [/tools/abacus/ nanoFET in ABACUS] ====
241
242 [[Image(/site/resources/tools/nanofet/nanofet.gif, 120 class=align-right)]] The [/tools/abacus/ nanoFET in ABACUS] simulates quantum ballistic transport properties in two-dimensional MOSFET devices for a variety of different device sizes, geometries, temperature and doping profiles.
243
244 ==== [[Resource(fettoy, nolink)]] ====
245
246 [[Image(/site/resources/tools/fettoy/1-fettoy.gif, 120 class=align-left)]] [[Resource(fettoy)]] is a set of Matlab scripts that calculate the ballistic I-V characteristics for a conventional MOSFETs, Nanowire MOSFETs and Carbon NanoTube MOSFETs. For conventional MOSFETs, assumes either a single or double gate geometry and for a nanowire and nanotube MOSFETs it assumes a cylindrical geometry. Only the lowest subband is considered, but it is readily modifiable to include multiple subbands. Additional related documents are: [/tools/fettoy/detailed_description FETToy Detailed Description], [/resources/122/ Theory of Ballistic Nanotransistors], [/resources/2844/ Learning Module on FETToy], [/resources/622/ Homework Exercises for FETToy].
247
248 === TCAD Simulators ===
249
250 ==== [/tools/abacus/ PADRE in ABACUS] ====
251
252 [[Image(/site/resources/tools/padre/padre.jpg, 120 class=align-left)]] [/tools/abacus/ PADRE in ABACUS] is a 2D/3D simulator for electronic devices, such as MOSFET transistors. It can simulate physical structures of arbitrary geometry--including heterostructures--with arbitrary doping profiles, which can be obtained using analytical functions or directly from multidimensional process simulators such as [[Tool(prophet)]]. A variety of supplemental documents are available that deal with the PADRE software and TCAD simulation:
253
254 * [/site/resources/tools/padre/doc/index.html User Guide (HTML)]
255 * [/site/resources/2006/06/01581/intro_dd_padre_word.pdf Abbreviated First Time User Guide]
256 * [tools/padre/faq/ FAQ]
257 * A set of course notes on [/resources/1500/ Computational Electronics] with detailed explanations on bandstructure, pseudopotentials, numerical issues, and drift diffusion.
258 * [resources/1516/ Introduction to DD Modeling with PADRE]
259 * [resources/1516/ MOS Capacitors: Description and Semiclassical Simulation With PADRE]
260 * [/resources/980/ A Primer on Semiconductor Device Simulation] [[span((Seminar), class=caption)]]
261
262 Exercises:
263
264 * [[Resource(5051)]]
265
266 * [[Resource(1516)]]
267
268 * [[Resource(1596)]]
269
270
271 ==== [/tools/abacus/ PROPHET in ABACUS] ====
272
273 [[Image(/site/resources/tools/prophet/prophet.jpg, 120 class=align-left)]] [/tools/abacus/ PROPHET] was originally developed for semiconductor process simulation. Device simulation capabilities are currently under development. PROPHET solves sets of partial differential equations in one, two, or three spatial dimensions. All model coefficients and material parameters are contained in a database library which can be modified or added to by the user. Even the equations to be solved can be specified by the end user. It is supported by an extensive set of [/site/resources/tools/prophet/doc/guide.html User Guide] pages and a seminar on [/resources/973/ Nano-Scale Device Simulations Using PROPHET].
274
275 == About [[ABACUS]] ==
276 The Assembly of Basic Applications for Coordinated Understanding of Semiconductors (ABACUS) has been put together from individual disjoint tools to enable educators and students to have a one-stop-shop in semiconductor education. It therefore benefits tremendously from the hard work that the contributors of the individual tool builders have put into their tools.
277
278 As a matter of credit, simulation runs that are performed in the ABACUS tool are also credited to the individual tools, which help the ranking of the individual tools. We do also count the number of usages of the individual tools in the ABACUS tool set, to measure the ABACUS impact and possibly also improve the tool.
279
280 In the description above we do not refer to the individual tools since we want to guide the users to the composite ABACUS tool. We cite the individual tools here explicitly so they are being given the appropriate credit and on their rspective tool pages are being linked to this ABACUS topic page.
281
282 === ABACUS constituent tools ===
283 ==== [[Resource(3741)]]====
284 ==== [[Resource(4826)]] ====
285 ==== [[Resource(kronig_penney)]] ====
286 ==== [[Resource(1308)]] ====
287 ==== [[Resource(2815)]] ====
288 ==== [[Resource(fermi)]] ====
289 ==== [[Resource(semi)]] ====
290 ==== [[Resource(prolabox)]] ====
291 ==== [[Resource(prolaboxflux)]] ====
292 ==== [[Resource(prolabcdd)]] ====
293 ==== [[Resource(prolabdcd)]] ====
294 ==== [[Resource(prophet)]] ====
295 ==== [[Resource(tsuprem4)]] ====
296 ==== [[Resource(229)]] ====
297 ==== [[Resources(2658)]] ====
298 ==== [[Resource(bjt)]] ====
299 ==== [[Resource(451)]] ====
300 ==== [[Resource(221)]] ====
301 ==== [[Resource(452)]] ====
302 ==== [[Resource(1090)]] ====
303 ==== [[Tool(fettoy)]] ====
304 ==== [[Resource(941)]] ====
305 ==== [[Tool(prophet)]] ====

nanoHUB.org, a resource for nanoscience and nanotechnology, is supported by the National Science Foundation and other funding agencies. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.